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Lecture 3

Week 3; Lecture 5,6 + Tutorial 3 Sept 24,25,27 - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

WEEK 3 RELIGST 2HH3 Lecture 5 September 24, 2013  Paul wrote in Greek  We read Paul in many different translations  We read in English – translators had a Greek version of the Bible  Where did they get the info for the Greek NT o Not Septuagint – Greek translation of the Hebrew OT  OT 3 Types of Evidence for Greek NT 1. Greek Manuscripts – Paul’s letters in Greek o We do not have originals – only copies of copies of copies etc o Enormous number of copies; >5000 in Greek manuscript form of parts of the NT o Number is impressive, but misleading – some are complete for whole NT; some many only contain fragments  Other authors form ancient world – Tacitus (?) (historian) evidence is based on 1 manuscript (9 cent) th and one (11 cent)  yet we study him o Can be divided into different categories  Papyrus – earliest manuscripts; plant that grew in marshes of Egypt; could be cut and put into a form th used to write on; used up until 8 century  Parchment – started to replace papyrus from the 4 century; treated animal skins prepared in such a way that you could write on them th  Paper – started to be used around 11 century and thereafter o Distinguish between writing styles  Uncial – capital letters; earliest letters th  Cursive/Miniscule – small letter style; around 9 century and on o Difference between scroll/roll form and a Codex (book form) form  Scroll – could probably fit about one Gospel  Codex – book form  Literature in ancient world used scrolls; all Jewish biblical manuscripts are on scrolls  NT manuscripts are on codex form  At the time, codices were not used for proper literature; were used for notebooks of a sort  Reason – don’t know why, but speculations: o Perhaps earliest Christian documents were not though of as a piece of literature, but as a notebook-kind-of-thing that was used by uneducated people o Codex could contain more content; more convenient to use o Cursive manuscripts from the late period were the only evidence; throughout the middle ages, few people read Greek – only read Latin translations  1500’s – first Greek NT was published; all that was available was late cursive manuscripts o Wasn’t until 1800’s that the great uncial’s from the 4 century began to be used  Vaticanus – been in the Vatican library since at least 1475; from mid 300’s; probably from Alexandria in Egypt; has most of both OT and NT (Greek); lacks some parts of Genesis, parts of Psalms and end of NT  Parchment  Uncial  Sinaiticus – 1840’s  1844 – visiting Egypt searching for biblical manuscripts; visiting monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai and noticed 43 leaves of parchment in waste basket (about to be burned) and discovered they were very early manuscripts of ancient Greek manuscripts (only parts); allowed to keep them and published them  1853 – returned but got nothing else  1859 – tried to get access to manuscript but was not able to do so; day he left, he gave monastery the published leaves; they brought out another manuscript for him to look at and it was the Sinaiticus  Almost a complete Bible  Asked to purchase it; was not allowed  Continued to pursue purchase – bought it for the Czar of Russia  1917 – Russian revolution; British museum purchased manuscript o Papyri are a discover of the 20 century;  150-200 AD manuscripts – discovered in late 19 – early 20 century  In the sands of Egypt; locals found the manuscripts and broke them into pieces as to sell them  Paul’s letters – papyrus 46; from around year 200; originally contained 10 letters of Paul  Lacks parts of Romans and 1 Thessalonians and all of 2 Thessalonians 1 WEEK 3 RELIGST 2HH3  Was broken into pieces for money  30 pages found in Michigan  Remaining pages in Dublin o Parchments – Sinaiticus and Vaticanus (uncial) o No two copies are identical because they are all hand copied  Some are mistakes  Skip a few words or a line  Repeating the same word(s)  Simple word change  Same story told differently (especially in gospels, in some of Paul’s letters) o Eg/ The lords prayer (Matthew and Luke) – scribe may write the copy he remembers from Matthew instead of Luke when copying  Some are intentional o Original form must be found in one of these manuscripts (out of 5000) – problem; trying to decide which manuscript is most similar to original  Extrinsic Criteria (external evidence) – how many manuscripts did they each review and how good are the manuscripts; does a church father depend more on certain manuscripts;  Typically: o How good o How early o How much support from church fathers  Tendency to believe that earlier > later – however not always the case because later copy may have been copied from an even earlier copy or a more accurate copy  Tendency to believe that the more the better – however, if 1 makes a mistake, then 1000 copies have the same mistake vs. 3 copies made from an accurate source  Intrinsic (internal evidence)  “Does it make sense for the author to have written this?”  The more difficult reading is more likely to be closer to the original; the less obvious reading o A scribe is more likely to “fix” a problem found in a text than add a problem into the text o Eg/ Acts 8 – Philip and Ethiopian – Ethiopian wants to be baptized; one says he goes to be baptized, one has more dialogue, then is baptized  More original one is the first; no scribe would leave out the confession that Christ is Lord; a scribe may have added it to explain situation o Eg/ End of Marks Gospel (more substantial of a difference) – ends at Mark 16:8; more verses added later  Why would it have ended? Maybe Mark was unable to write it, last page got lost etc  Understand why longer ending is there – story doesn’t seem complete; taking story from other gospels and added to end o Manuscripts are divided into families  Alexandrian Text Tradition – trace into 2dcentury; most valuable tradition that seems to be closest to original; scholarly tradition; carefully preserved nd  “Western” Text Tradition – traced to 2 century; freer; people conveying substance, as opposed to word- for-word  Byzantine Text Tradition – 4 century; scribes who seemed to combined Alexandrian and Western; dominated manuscripts from that point on o Modern additions of Greek NT  Eclectic Text – text that doesn’t reproduce the text of any ancient Greek manuscripts – puts together what is seem as the best reading at each point  Most today are eclectic  Diplomatic Text – reproduces one manuscript 2. Quotations from Paul in the Early Church Fathers o Eg/ Chrysostom had commentary on all of Paul’s letters o Limitations –  No context – individual verses are quoted; not whole letter  Misquoted – may not be identical to original text; may be paraphrased  Tend to quote by memory; arduous task to consult the actual manuscript, their purposes did not require them to refer to original letter  Subjective to person quoting – may change wording to fit their purpose 3. Translation into other languages 2 WEEK 3 RELIGST 2HH3 o Greek manuscripts translated also into Latin, Syria, Coptic and other languages o Limitations  Meaning lost in translation – one Latin word may be used to translate 2-3 Greek words; may never now the original word used Tutorial 3 September 25, 2013 Acts 17 1. Context o Acts 1-12 (first part of Acts) o Acts 13-28 – Paul, Mission to Gentiles (second part of Acts)  Diaspora – dispersion  Jews not living in Judea (in this context)  Jews lived predominantly in Judea; when Assyrians came and destroyed the North Kingdom, the Jews were dispersed across the land  When Babylon came and destroyed the South kingdom, went to Babylon or Egypt  Breakdown of Chapters 1. 13-14 – 1 missionary journey of Paul; wen tout to Diaspora; went to Jews and Gentiles 2. 15 – Jerusalem; leaders decide on which rules and stipulations are required of Gentiles to become members of this community nd 3. 16-18 – 2 missionary journey 4. 19-21 – 3 missionary journey 5. 21-26 – Jerusalem; stays in Judea 6. 27-28 – To Rome 2. Clarification o Acts 17:1-9 – Thessalonica  Sabbath (Acts 17:2) – Jewish day of rest; Holy Day of the week; go to synagogue to worship  Devout Greeks (Acts 17:4) – Gentiles who went to synagogues; supported Jewish religion or some just observed  Scriptures (Acts 17:11) – Hebrew Bible  Athens (Acts 17:16) – temples, statues, inscriptions etc; many gods; marketplace was like a museum, many statues and gods  Epicurean and Stoics (Acts 17:18) – those who followed the way of life of their philosophy schools  Followed philosophical schools; philosophy was a way of life (ethics and practice)  Epicurean Beliefs – atomism (early beliefs about atoms making up everything; materialistic; don’t believe in spirits or souls), pleasure (aim for maxim
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