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Lecture 9

Week 5; Lecture 9, 10 - Oct 8, 9, 11 + Tutorial 5 - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

WEEK 5 RELIGST 2HH3 Lecture 9 October 8, 2013 1+2 Corinthians  4 instances that Jesus’ institution of the Lord Supper is recorded o Matthew, Mark, Luke, 1 Corinthians – Matthew and Mark most similar; Luke and 1 Corinthians most similar o Paul mentioned it because there were problems how the Corinthians were observing the Lords Supper  “I received from the Lord what I also will pas on to you”  Quotes a tradition (close to form of Luke)  Interesting that he would pass it on to the Corinthians  1 Corinthians 11:24 – manuscript differences o This is my body, which is for you o This is my body, which is broken for you  Metaphor – speaking about breaking bread and the sacrifice of Jesus o This is my body, which is given for you o Scholars think – “for you” is the first reading  Scribes may have added to it (“what for you?”; given (borrowed from Luke), broken for you (metaphor for bread))  1 Corinthians 13 – manuscript differences; “if I give away all that I have, bit by bit, and if I give up my body --- but do not have love, I gain nothing” o “So that I am burned” – makes more sense o “So that I may boast” – doesn’t really make sense; yet Paul often mentions that boasting is not good so it may make sense o Burned and boast are one letter different  Paul’s relationships with the Thessalonians and Philippians (both in Macedonia) – warm, open  Paul’s relationships with the Corinthians – Corinthians were suspicious; skeptical; people wondered about his agenda and intentions  Acts 18 – beginning of relationships with Corinthians; remained for ~18 months; taught in Synagogues; taught in the house of Titius Justus; brought before the Roman Proconsul, but case was dismissed by Galeo o Galeo was proconsul in Acacia Corinth (51-52 AD)  Paul was in Corinth during this time o Returned to Jerusalem then started 3 missionary journey and went to Ephesus for ~3 years  Letter to Corinthians – written while in Ephesus (mentioned in 1 Corinthians 16) o Referred to a letter already written to them; we do not have that letter; 1 letter is actuletter written; 2 letter rd is actually 3 letter written o Purpose of writing letter – heard about what is going on in Corinth; different sources of information from “Chloe’s people”, rival groups forming, taking shape in the church  Chloe – wealthy business woman; had employees who traveled to Ephesus on business, while there, had reported to Paul  Received visitors from Corinthian church (Ch 16); 3 leaders who visited and refreshed him  Letter Corinthian church wrote to him – asked many questions; Chloe’s people or leaders probably brought letter from the Corinthian church  Beginning 6 chapters – issues he had heard about  Next chapters – takes up questions they had addressed  Telling travel plans – visit them shortly o No one focus in first letter (in Galatians, there is a primary purpose; Thessalonians purpose is thanksgiving and gladness for receiving Timothy gladly)  Letter to Corinthians has many different concerns  Allows for us to have a glimpse into what happened in a church meeting in Corinth (more so than information we have about any other church)  Danger to this – we naturally assume that this is how other churches go about their business; should not take for granted that this church may have been irregular  Church meetings seem unstructured o Jerusalem church probably more structures; apostles were present, probably took more of a leadership role  Paul’s Response to the Corinthians o Chapter 1 – Divisions in the church – unity breaking down; some following Peter, Paul, Apollos, Christ  Paul says this ought not to happen; must unite around one message that is common to them all  The message of the cross, that God has decided to use the humiliation and execution as means of salvation – God is overturning human values and standards entirely  The cross of Christ shows that what appears foolish to us is the way God exercises his wisdom o Weakness in eyes of Humans, God demonstrates is strength o Lining up behind one person based on human standards; what normal humans value 1 WEEK 5 RELIGST 2HH3  Eg/ Apollos – wiser, better preacher o By Christ’s death on the cross, God is showing the emptiness of human standards o Christ dying for our redemption  Paul is the only one who makes a great deal of the death on the cross, that is was a crucifixion (most shameful of deaths) – God overturns human values and standards; the great extent of humility of Christ o Chapter 3  V16-17; 6 – believers (as a community) are temple of Gods Holy Spirit  Temple in Jerusalem, tabernacle – dwelling place of God; cannot enter into temple (except for priest), could go into courtyard if cleansed; can bring offering; o Differentiate from synagogue – people gathered to worship  Spiritualization of notion of temple – no longer confined to geographically located place; not abuilding – it is in people, where believers are  Dangerous to be the temple of God – danger to approach Go unworthily  Community is the temple of God – if there is disunity in community, they are destroying the temple of God  show unity, or you are not a worthy temple and in danger of Gods judgment o Chapter 5 – begins with case of gross immorality; man living with stepmother  Activity that would not even be committed amongst pagans – should not occur amongst them  They are proud of this immorality – Paul had proclaimed to them a message of Christian freedom; freedom from the law; certain people may have interpreted this as freedom to whatever they choose; grossest thing may be the best expression of freedom  misunderstanding of Paul’s message o Chapter 6 – individual believer as a temple of Holy Spirit  Dangerous because of immorality, sexual impurity, resorting to prostitutes – cannot take the temple of God and use it in an immoral way  Possibly misinterpreting Christian freedom  Would seem to be obvious – from Mosaic law of do not commit adultery but they are now “free” from law  Paul does not refer to a law (of Moses) – shows on the basis of Christian principles why this is not acceptable o Chapter 7 – begins specific questions  Better to not marry at all; on the principle that anything to do with the body is bad, anything to do with the spirit is good – better to not use body at all or get married  In principle – good to live without marriage because can devote self fully to the Lord without distraction s of marriage; not because marriage is bad  Marriage is not bad; free to marry; within marital relationship, sexual relations are in order o Chapter 8,9,10 – meat offered to idols  Meat in market had been offered to pagan gods; associated with idolatry – can Christians eat this meat?  Chapter 8 – begins with the fact that, in principle, eating meat offered to idols is ok – Idols that others worship are not really gods, meat is as good as any other meat  Chapter 10 – circumstances where you should not eat this meat;  Most people know these gods do not exist – in which case, eating this meat is fine  Some actually think of it as meat offered to idols; think of it as worship of other gods if you eat it; if eating in front of others who believe that it is idolatry, it may encourage the idolatry – question of how it affects others o If it damages conscience of others, do not do it o For your self, it is fine if you do not truly believe it is idolatry  Principle – right to do something, but do not do it; right ought not to exercise if it has adverse effects on others o Chapter 11 – relations between men and women in the church  References of a veil (nature we do not know or how it was understood in the ancient world)  Angels (do not know understanding in ancient world)  Paul believes that the roles and nature of men and women are different in creation and should be respected in the church o Chapter 12-14 – spiritual gifts  Controversy  Charismatic outbreaks; valuing wrong gifts  All gifts are given by God; important are the ones that benefit others (specifically prophesy rather than tongues) o Chapter 13 – even if all spiritual gifts; if not have love, amount to nothing Tutorial 5 October 9, 2013 1 Corinthians 13  1 Corinthians has no clear structure – issues Paul tackles; moves from issue to issue 2 WEEK 5 RELIGST 2HH3  Popular chapter about love  Brings up topic of love for a specific purpose  Context and Purpose o 1 Corinthians 12  1 Corinthians 12:1-11 – variety of spiritual gifts (speaking tongues, prophesying etc; gifts the Spirit gives to members of the church to fulfill certain roles)  1 Corinthians 12:12-31 – one body (gifts related to the body; individual members of the body, each have a certain function to work together; seemingly insignificant body part is important to the larger functioning of the whole)  Some have gifts and are elevating selves above everyone else – Paul is saying that everyone is equal; seemingly unimportant gifts play a crucial role  God has distributed the gifts so that the community can work together as a body – must have a diversity of gifts; not be hung up on one in particular  becomes an important Pauline theme (body of Christ) o 1 Corinthians 13 – love o 1 Corinthians 14  1 Corinthians 14:1-25 – tongues and prophesy (predicting future); prophecy builds up the church, while tongues build up the individual person; prophesy > tongues (if there is no interpreter, because no one else is profiting from experience) o Purpose; why does Paul bring up love between chapters about spiritual gifts?  Relationship between love and gifts, in the context of the church  Gifts are not bad in and of itself – meant to be used in conjunction with love; love is superior  Purpose of gifts is the edification and building up of entire Christian community – to be done in love, not self serving  Gifts are an edification of love  1 Corinthians 13:1-3 – selected certain gifts to mention  if you do all these gifts, but do not have love, it amounts to nothing o Tongues; people, angels (1 Corinthians 14:1-24) o Prophecy (1 Corinthians 14:1-24) o Understanding/Knowledge (1 Corinthians 1, 8:1)  Foolishness of God is wiser than the wisest of the world (1 Corinthians 1) – nee
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