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Lecture 11

Week 6; Lecture 11, 12 - Oct 15, 16, 18 + Tutorial 5 - RELIGST 2HH3

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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

WEEK 6 RELIGST 2HH3 Lecture 11 October 15, 2013 2 Corinthians  Chapters 1-9 vs. 10-13 (refer to previous lecture) o Chapters 1-9 – good relationship; Paul has confidence in them o Chapters 10-13 – raising objections and accusations; Paul’s confidence in the Corinthians has deteriorated  Explanation for difference – interval of time between when he wrote Ch 1-9 and Ch 10-13 (received information before completing and had to revise his tone) OR two separate letters o 2 Corinthians 1-9 – Paul is sending 3 people to Corinth to help before collection in Jerusalem – Titus and two brothers (one designated by the churches, representatives of the churches; one of Paul’s choice to help Corinthians)  future tense regarding sending Titus and others  2 Cor 8:16-24 – collection he is taking up for believers in Jerusalem, Titus and 2 brothers to help with collection o 2 Corinthians 12:16-18 – being accused of using the collection for his own purposes; Paul says that Titus and brothers who were sent did not exploit the Corinthinsrefers to collection as the past o More likely that this comes from a later letter than from the same letter  Super Apostles – being compared by Corinthians to Paul; Paul doesn’t measure up o Super Apostles – came with impressive credentials, making demands of Corinthians; Paul did not make these demands nor did he have these credentials o Paul’s Response (2 Corinthians 11) (ironic) – others boasted of credentials which impresses Corinthians; Paul speaks of how boasting is inappropriate, but is compelled to “take on a role of a fool”, and boasts (first 20 verses of Chapter 11); then follows with comparisons  Paul is a truer servant of Christ because of his suffering – shows inappropriate standards that Super Apostles use to claim superiority  Boasts of weakness, not of “strengths”; in weakness that Christ’s power is in Paul  Note: the last verse; famous benediction – acknowledges the trinity, all objects of prayer; treated as divine o Trinity is implied, not explicit – language of the trinity not in itself used in the NT; rather, raw data is provided regarding the trinity in the NT o In Paul’s day, the doctrine of the trinity was not formed o Anachronistic – taking something from a later period, and attributing it to the past 14 o May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.  2 Corinthians is the last communication that we have between Paul and the Corinthians – seemingly ends on bad terms o When Paul writes to the Romans, he is in Corinth; says that the churches of Acaia have contributed toward the collection in Jerusalem o Romans 15-16 – Paul seems to be back on good terms with Corinthians Galatians  Most scholars believe that 1 Thessalonians was first letter; some believe Galatians  Galatians may have been written around Corinthian letter; when in Ephesus  Galatian churches that received the letter: o Southern Galatian Hypothesis/ Provincial Explanation  Acts 13-14 – Paul was in what is now SE Turkey and established communities of believers there  Ethnically, people who lived here were not Galatians  Lived in province of Galatia – scholars believe that these were the Galatians the letter was directed to o North Galatian Hypothesis/ Ethnic Explanation  Ethnic Galatians – lived further north of modern turkey may have been the Galatians to which Paul wrote  Acts never says that Paul was here – not decisive argument, Acts not a compete recollection  Reason for writing letter – gentile believers; trouble makers had give them the law, who believed that Jesus was the Messiah, but also thought that non-Jews had to be circumcised and keep the Jewish Law o “Trouble-Makers” reasoning – the fact that the Messiah has come, doesn’t mean laws don’t have to be kept; Jewish people are God’s people, Abraham and his descendants had to be circumcised, and they are Gods people – doesn’t change the fact that God’s people are Jews; believe that Jesus is the Messiah, but have to become Jews to be God’s people as well o Galatians 1-2 – talks about Paul’s own calling as an Apostle; makes it seem like the outsiders undermine Paul’s authority and his Apostleship  Recall: Acts considers the 12 Apostles those who saw the baptism of John and the resurrection  Outsiders seem to be saying that Paul is not an apostle on the same level as the others; probably got his message from other human beings, not from Christ  got it second hand, got it wrong  Peter James and John got their message from Jesus o Paul re-affirms his calling as an Apostle – not from people nor through an individual, but through Christ; divine apostle 1 WEEK 6 RELIGST 2HH3 o Insists that he did not receive his message from a human being; received it by revelation of Christ  Spent little time in Jerusalem, Jesus was revealed to me; did not go to Jerusalem, went to Arabia; went to Jerusalem years later, stayed for only 2 weeks only to meet Peter and James, did not connect with other Apostles  spent little time in Jerusalem, little connection with Jerusalem apostles  Could not have received second hand information; did not get message or authority or apostleship from other apostles o Emphasized his former life (that he once persecuted the church, his adherence to the Jewish laws) – God must have been the one who intervened, changed his way of life, and gave him a message  Peter couldn’t have told him – he was persecuting Peter  Divine nature of conversion and authorization  Life that Galatian troublemakers try to tell them, is the life he used to live – ought to observe the law; that is how he used to live God intervened and told him something different – why are you following that now? Why would God do that if it were not true? o Jerusalem apostles confirmed his message and apostleship (peter, James and john; pillars of the church) – recognized that he ought to go to the churches; did not tell him to add more to his message; did not make Titus get circumcised  Speaks of incidence where Paul confronted Peter and tells Peter he is doing something incorrect – caused problems in the early church because early church fathers could not conceive that Peter and Paul could have disagreed o In Antioch (mixed community; gentile and Jewish believers in Jesus) – common meals (Jews and gentiles ate together); Peter went to Antioch, impressed with display of unity; certain people came from James, then Peter stopped eating with Gentiles, so did Barnabus and other Jewish believers  Paul said that this was wrong  Suggested things that people from James may have said to Peter  Jews supposed to keep the law – you ought to follow the law and not eat with Gentiles o In Jerusalem, stipulations for Gentiles (gentiles don’t have to keep laws) – hadn’t spoken about Jewish conditions  this does not contradict what they had agreed on in Jerusalem  Strategy – In principle, may have felt it was OK for Jewish believers in Jesus to not keep law – but may not be strategic because peter and James outreach/mission was the Jews o Similar to Paul – when with Jews, practice Jewish law to avoid offence; when with gentiles, act as a gentile o You’re a Jew, believer in Christ, don’t have to keep law but should  Strategy - Zealots may have become more adamant about Jews observing Jewish laws; physically hurting Jews who do not follow  may be dangerous not to observe laws  Not sure what James had said, but Peter had stopped o Paul’s response to Peter at Antioch – no quotations used, so not sure when what Paul told to peter and when argument to Galatians begins o Paul - We are justified not by works of the law, but by faith in Christ; cannot be righteous to God by the law; why are you observing the law? Sends a message to the gentiles that the law is needed for righteousness  Gal 2:21 - If righteousness were possible under the law, then Christ died for no purpose – if the law can give you salvation, then Christ wouldn’t have needed to die  We must have needed redeeming in a radical sense (Jesus’ death) than what we used to believe (following the law) – no one can be righteous on own by observing law, because Jesus death was necessary for salvation o Already experience gift of spirit when you believed the message; not circumcised, not baptized – shouldn’t need law o Scripture shows that righteousness comes from faith not keeping the law o Under a law, under a curse – curse for those who do not obey commandments; can choose scriptures way of righteousness and be delivered by Jesus (because he die and was cursed, taking our curse upon himself) Lecture 12 October 16, 2013  Circumcisions  The law cannot set aside what has already been given; Abraham received the spirit before being circumcised  Isaac and Ishmael o Isaac – those who believe; receives the promise o Ishmael – physical descendant  2 Corinthians 3; compares old covenant to new covenant o Both given with divine glory o Old – had eternal commands written on tablets of stone; of the law; temporary; ministry of condemnation and death o New – of the spirit; lasting; ministry of righteousness and life  Galatians 4 o Righteousness – describes what you ought to do; willing to take rebuke; will be recognized as such by God o 2 Paths to be recognized as righteous by God  Righteousness of the law (Galatians 3:12) – the one who does what the law commands is righteousness 2 WEEK 6 RELIGST 2HH3  Law has sanctions – what happens if you obey or do not obey o Sinaitic Covenant (Deuteronomy 28-29) – list of blessings and curses, life or death  Paul is aware that the law promises life if law obeyed (principle)  ministry of death and condemnation because no one obeys the law as they ought to (application) o Galatians 2:16 o Galatians 3:10 – all who depend on the works of the law, whose path to righteousness if dependent on the law, is under a curse, because no one follows all commandments o All humans are offered life on these terms – but no one can be righteous through this; there is an alternative path through Jesus  Righteousness of faith – not based on observance of the law, based on believing in Jesus, having faith that Jesus has been provided by God to take upon the curse human beings; because he took upon this curse that follows from human transgression, humans can be free from transgressions and consequences; humans can be declared righteous  Genesis 15:6 – Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness  Habakkuk 2:4 – the just shall live by faith; person righteous through faith shall live o Relates to circumcision  People believe that they must be c
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