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Lecture 15

Oct 29 Week 8; Lecture 15 on Titus, 1+2 Timothy - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

WEEK 8 RELIGST 2HH3 Lecture 15 October 29, 2013 1+2 Timothy and Titus  Pastor – Latin word for shepherd  Pastorale music – depicting idyllic life of shepherd in countryside  Pastorale Epistles – epistle written for shepherds o Pastor  metaphorical Shepherd caring for sheep  Directed to individual rather than a church  These three letters – directed to leaders of church, share common concerns, distinctive vocabulary  Titus o Titus has been left in Crete to organize churches there; will later join Paul in Nicopolis (NW of Corinth) o Greek (not a Jew) o Trusted worker of Paul  Galatians 2 – Paul and Barnabus go to Jerusalem, bring Titus – issue of Gentile circumcision is discussed  even though Titus was a Greek, he was not compelled to be circumcised in Jerusalem  Carried tearful letter to Corinthians – Paul expected to meet Titus in Troas but did not, so went to Macedonia and met him there o This letter does not fit into Acts – no story corresponds to this letter  1 Timothy o Greek father, Jewish mother – Paul thought it wise to have him circumcised so he would be accepted among Jews nd o 2 Missionary Journey with Silas – Timothy is highly recommended, so he goes with them o Includes Timothy as a “co-author” for a number of letters; was with Paul at the time of writing o Trusted worker of Paul  Hopes to send Timothy to Philippians, 1+2 Corinthians o Timothy left behind in Ephesus to look after organizational needs of the church, as Paul went to Macedonia o Paul seems to be a free man at time of writing o Doesn’t fit exactly into Acts – Paul was in Ephesus  Acts 19-20 – Paul left Ephesus and Macedonia; but in Acts, it says that he had sent Timothy ahead of him, rather than been left behind in Ephesus  Might have left Ephesus for Macedonia a number of times not mentioned in Acts because he was in Ephesus for so long  2 Timothy o Written from Rome when Paul was in prison; expects that the end is near  Philippians – execution was a possibility  2 Tim – “run the race”  On trial once, had been delivered – does not expect to be delivered again o Recently in Rome, western coast of what is now Turkey, mentions being in Troas – left a book there and asks Tim to bring it with him o Been in Miletus – left coworker Trophimus, because Trophimus was sick o Asked timothy to come as soon as possible, to bring the cloak because he would need it o Could fit into Acts – Paul in Rome as a prisoner for 2 years; then Acts ends  If, after those 2 years, he was released, then Paul went on to other missions  Possibly this first trial then release mentioned in 2 timothy could be this  The re-arrested and expects to die o If Paul was released from Rome (end of Acts) and did more missionary work – then we can explain what happens in letters of 1+2 Timothy and Titus  Reading Pastorale Epistles – to see them as written after the end of Acts; referring to mission work of Paul post-Acts  Pastoral Epistles go against Paul’s plans to go to the west o Mission plans in Romans  Finished work in the east, wants to go to the west (Spain) – going to stop in Rome on his way to a mission in Spain  Plans: Jerusalem, collection  Rome  Spain  Arrested in Jerusalem and went to Rome as a prisoner  no evidence that Paul ever went to Spain  Interesting that his plans were to go west, yet pastoral epistles claim he went east o Acts 20 – speaking to leaders of church at Ephesus; I know that I am not going to see your face anymore, or you my face – fits plans for his travels to the west  take story from Pastorale Epistles, released from Rome then did go back to Ephesus  Goes against these plans o Explanation – could be thinking that his time is short, don’t have time to go west, so he goes east 1 WEEK 8 RELIGST 2HH3 st  Writer of Roman church at end of 1 century; 3-4 centuries after Paul’s life – says that Paul carried the gospel to the extreme end of the western world (Spain) o Explanations that he referred to Paul  Was in Rome – people in Rome knew what Paul had done – perhaps Paul did go on to Spain, as he had planned  Problem – doesn’t fit with Pastoral Epistles  Writer had no personal knowledge about whether Paul had gone to the west – but assumed that Paul had taken the gospel to Spain because Paul had planned to  Pastoral Epistles do not fit into Acts, but fit after Acts – if Paul had gone to the east; but is complicated by Paul’s plans to go west  Reason for writing letters o Telling churches to appoint leaders  Timothy see to it that Elders and deacons appointed in churches in Ephesus  Titus responsible for Elders in Crete  Apparent concern of Paul in these letters, but not previous letters  Churches are growing and in need of leadership  Succession issue – Paul exercised supervision over churches; either sent a letter, visited or sent a worker; reaching a point that there should be local leadership  Note: possible exaggerations in Pastoral Epistles – other letters have local leadership; Philippians have elders and deacons  Around this time, end of 60s, beginning of 70s – when Gospels began to be written
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