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Lecture 18

November 13 Tutorial (Week 10; Lecture 18 + Tutorial 7) - RELIGST 2HH3

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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

WEEK 10 RELIGST 2HH3 Lecture 18 November 12, 2013  Oedipus The King (Socrates) – prophecy that he would kill his father, marry his mother; in order to get around the prophecy, they sent him away for years; on the road he killed his real father and fell in love with his mother – by avoiding prophecy, they fulfilled it o Plague on the land due to Oedipus being married to his mother; unknowingly, but it ought not to be  Land is polluted by this incestuous relationship; in order for land to be delivered from the plague, the pollution has to be removed (King married to mother must be banished)  Deuteronomy 21 o Mysterious murder, but do not know killer – have to atone by taking heifer and breaking its neck  Oedipus – Innocent, yet ought not to have happened; whole land polluted  until something is done to banish pollution, everyone will suffer  Deuteronomy – cannot allow for unresolved murder, because it will pollute the community; God graciously provides a means by which they can atone for the wrongdoing that has been done so that not everyone suffers  Wrongdoing is not only a crime by the standards of the law; it is a wrongdoing that pollutes the whole land (introduce something out of order and must be dealt with)  Important to find wrongdoer so that person shall bear his iniquity – not everyone has to suffer  Dynamic Thought o Sin will come back to haunt you, not simply breaking of law, introduces disorder that will haunt you o Atonement – when God provides a substitute victim on whom the ill that follows wrongdoing can exhaust itself, so that the wrongdoers themselves do not have to suffer Romans 4  Leading up to Romans 4 (Romans 3) o All human kind is guilty; cannot be declared righteous o God has put forward Jesus as the means of expiation, means of atonement, for sin  something done about wrong doing o God shows his righteousness, the righteousness of faith; not ordinary righteousness gained by people doing what is right; it is extraordinarily granted to them when they respond in faith o God would not be righteous, if He declared unrighteous to be righteous – must make unrighteous to be righteous first, something must be done about wrongdoing making them unrighteousness  provided Christ to atone for sins; can now declare sinners righteous o Path of Faith to Righteousness  Open to Jew and Gentile alike; not dependent on observance of Jewish law; dependent on faith  Excludes boasting  Undeserving of righteousness, yet declared righteous; cannot boast about something you do not deserve, yet have been granted  Boasting a Jew might make, because they are Gods special people is excluded – path opened to everyone, not only Jews; righteousness based on faith, not the law o Not doing away with the Law, but establishing the Law  May seem like doing away with Law – but that is only because it was a misunderstanding; not intended in bringing about righteousness, but to show sin  Doing away with misunderstanding (that the law leads to righteousness); now understanding it’s true purpose (law shows sin; righteousness through faith)  Law – can be understood as Sinaitic Law; or could be taken as Gen, Ex, Lev, Num, Det (books of Moses) which talk about righteousness of faith (speaks of this in Romans 4)  V 1-8 – righteousness not by acts, but faith; gift of grace; nothing to boast  David and Abraham  Referred to Abraham o Why did Paul speak of Abraham?  Forefather of Jewish people  Seen by Jews as a righteous person; righteous before God – did what he ought  Seemingly counters Pauls’ argument against being righteous based on acts o What was true about Abraham?  Not even Abraham was righteous based on what he did; he was righteous by faith  If he was righteous by doing what he ought, then he would have something to boast about – but that is not what scripture says  scripture says that “he believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness”; righteousness based on faith  Abraham worried about Gods promise to be the father of many nations; was aging but had no children – Abraham believed God and his faith was counted as righteousness 1 WEEK 10 RELIGST 2HH3  Paraphrasing OT telling people what they must do – a just judge must not declare guilty righteous, or righteous guilty  A wage is paid, not as a gracious gift, but as something you are deserving of – wages are earned; but to the one who does not work, but believes on God, who declares righteousness on the ungodly, it’s a matter of grace  God declares righteous the guilty  People are not receiving righteousness because they earned it, but because they received it as a gift o V1-5  Righteousness is by faith, not by acts  Gift of grace  Leaves you with nothing to boast about  PROVEN THROUGH EXAMPEL OF ABRAHAM  interpreting scripture correctly  David (V6-8) o Also proves righteousness is not based on acts o Assuming that David is the author of Psalms o David speaks of the blessedness of the one whose sins have been forgiven; iniquities God has covered  Jew and Gentile alike V 9-12 o Abraham  Declared righteous before circumcised – if circumcision is the mark of a Jew; Abe was dec righteous before he was a Jew – makes him a father of all the gentiles who believe and are declared righteous  Not physically descendent, but righteous in the same way; spiritual sons  Forefather of not only of Jews; but also Jews who follow in footsteps of faith of Abraham  Forefather of Jew or Gentile  Jew – physical; but also must be believer  Gentile – spiritual sons  4:15 – Righteous by the law or righteous by faith – exclusive alternatives; cannot overlap or have both o Also in Galatians 3 o Introduces real purpose of law  Law brings wrath  End of Chapter o Gal 3 – Paul used Abraham (believed God, counted as righteousness); o Showing nature of Abrahams Father – anticipating nature of Christian faith spoken about in Romans 5 o Nothing in the circumstances in which Abraham was living to encourage fait (aging, wife aging (past fertility) – yet
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