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RELIG ST 2Q03 Lecture3.docx

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Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Lecture 3 History Battle of Badr  was where the battle took place  close to Medina o it took place; because the people in Mecca were not believing  there was a disputation;  the position of prayer was changed from Jerusalem to the Ka’aba o could be seen as a test o because the prophet wanted it  after the defeat and Badr it was important for the Muslims o because the Muslims were out numbered 3 to 1, had limited weapons o the worst thing for an Arab is to run; shows cowardliness o Women of Mecca taunted the men for losing  Murwwa  traits and values you need to have  manliness  retaliation  brave  hospitable to the people in your tribe ` o Quraish  the tribe in mecca/the leading/powerful one  guardians of the Ka’aba  Muhammad belonged to them  women of the Quraish taunted them Outskirts of Median(Yathrik)- Uhud [another battle] year 625  the Quraish came; they were 3000 and the Muslims were 1000  this time the Muslims were winning- there was a small hill where Muhammad put some archers to guard the hill; to insure they were not attacked from behind  booty- spools of war; what you can steal from the dead  the Muslims actually lost; the Muslims felt satisfied;  the prophet was wounded, but not killed  50-70 Muslims died  the Muslims were hiding  the victory that Meccan’s wanted was not achieved; because they wanted to wipe the prophet Battle of the trench  Salman; a Persian suggested to dig a trench/hole  dug a hole in Medina  when the Arabs came they were not used to this idea  no battle actually took place  the Arabs were there for a month  mecca was important; because the Ka’aba is there  the Muslims were at the outskirts of Mecca o DECIDED TO HAVE A PEACE TREATY FOR 10 YEARS o long and perfective o if they attacked one another then it would be void o many people saw this at defeat for the Muslims  Pilgrimage now is 2 days the 9 and 10 of the final month, but when Muhammad went to Mecca it was 3 days- they went for prostilization- spread the word of god  the contract/treaty was null/void  Abu Sufyan; wanted to kill Muhammad  there were 360 idols; and they were removed  god does not reside in images  all of his enemies were forgiven  in year 632  Muhammad travelled through Saudi Arabia; gave his final sermon  was emotional  talked about how he was going to die  after 3 months he died  Muhammad was charismatic; like several other prophets, greatly being able to attract people  Umar o refused to accept that the prophet was dead until Abu Bakr came and said that indeed Muhammad was dead  said that god was still living  Scripture o words and writing; to be legitimate and to have influence by god o gives us Taqwa*; being aware of gods presence  sense of conscious that is alive  a block that refrain you from doing bad  not only to submit as a Muslim, but also have a close connection to god  there is a difference between Islam and Iman  Islam; is submission  mentioned 8 times in the Quran  Iman; is faith; it is dynamic and positive in the sense that it is far more mentioned in the Quran  It is interactive; you are engaged in it  belief; it is a theory; having something o something all people in that tradition share o aqida (Arabic); something you all share  faith; when you are practicing, it is personal, that you engage with the divine o creed o changes; flux personal engagement o conviction comes with faith o based on justice; it is established when the poor are taken care of  Zakat; means to purify  taxes to help the poor o moral suicide  promote the good and get rid of evil  amr bil ma’ruf wanahy an al-munkar  hold certain moral values  morally strong help the morally weak  collectively we are supposed to uphold certain moral standards o literally means the world of god o the idea of divine content o now means that is anything divine and interactive o a book is a book if people consider it to be a book  often we miss the interaction o it’s a bilateral term; has an interaction of something o a scripture is a scripture only if it has a community and who believe in
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