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Lecture 6

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Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Ummayad  people of mu’awiya  the first dynasty of Islam  the navy was created  they conquered a part of Italy Abbasid  Vizier-wazir  Haroon Al-Rashid o he did not punish homosexuality o the Arabian knights o Muslims excelled in science and math o they favored the Iranian/Persians o Muslims had to bow to the caliph o before he died; he divided the empire into two- because he had two sons; one was arab and the other was Persian o Mamun- Eastern side o Ameen- Western side  they had a war/fight; Mamun killed his brother o Mamun  promoted science  established the house of wisdom in Bagdad  was intelligent  greek philosophy was translated to Arabic in Baghdad  there was a flowering of intellectual sciences  he also wanted to appease the shia’s  so he asked the 8 thshia imam; lived in medina  Mamun was living in merv which is in north east imam  Ali-al rida- was asked to be is successor; and he refused, he was forced so the shia’s would be on his side  later the sunni’s  Ali-Al-Ridda was poisoned- Shia claim that he was poisoned by Mamun  sunni’s went agains Mamun; because they did not want a shia leader  Mamun continued to live in Bagdad till he died in 833  he was succeeded by Mu’tasim who was Mamun’s brother o Mu’tasim  the caliph changed from Bagdad to Samarra  in Iraq; north of Bagdad in the Sunni triangle – where the majority live  it had the largest mosque- Mina Red  Samarra is where the Mahdi was born – the twelfth Imam  for the first time in order to be safe the caliph brought Turkish slaves to guard  The Turk’s then rose  1258- the Abbasid dynasty was overthrown  that was the end classical period of Islam  The Mongols came and destroyed everything…  they came from Mongolia  this starts the medieval period of Islam 1258-1798 o Abu Nuaz  wrote poems; some about small boys Theology/Kalam  Theo- means god or the divine  this is the study of god and the divine  deals with the question of Creed- Aqida o institutional system; tells you what you believe in o you need to establish boundaries  when you are challenged you need to know what to say what you believe  there is a question of belief  creed is a statement of belief; it draws boundaries  they are expressed to create orthodox  Kalam- literally means speech o it is a science of disputation o where you defend your beliefs against others in a dogmatic way; to defend your beliefs o effects not only what people believe in but also how they live o it is connected to religion and politics o Kharijis  they abandoned Ali  they had a concept of heaven and hell  they were a fundamentalist group  they were raising an important question of theology  they claimed that their actions are associated with their faith  they continued in the Abbiyad group  they believed that they were not good rulers  Murjites  Jia- is to postpone  they were supposed by the Ummayads o it was in Ummayad interest – because they suspended judgment for them o for them belief is enough- as long as you believe you are a Muslim
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