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Religious Studies
Danny M.Pincivero

Theology/Kalam Aqida: - beliefs - draws boundaries, whos in whos out - creates orthodox - quran does not have systematic statement in which aqida is defined Orthodox: - right path, opposite heterodox Kalam: - is very dogmatic, i am right, u are wrong - polemic ---> occur between different religions and within religion - not only impacts what ppl believe in, it also affects lives as belief affects lives - influence politics Kharijis: - rebels that broke off Ali's army - making statement between action and faith - when u commit a major sin u become faithless - when a person commits sin driven out of communities Murjites: - believed in postponing decisions - we do not have the right to judge ppl, leave it to God - connected with Umayyads, many said Umayyads evil but Murjites did not judge - believed in predestination - belief in God important, actions are less important - faith an actions separate - Qadaris challenged Murjites that humans choose actions not God Mutazili: - grew out of Qadaris - means to withdraw - refind qadaris position - human responsibility and justice of God important - aql ---> human reasoning - claimed our reasoning tells us that God does not control our acts, and God is good/just - we understand basics not from revelations but from aql - god cannot create our evil act and then punish us for it - five main principles ---> Tawhid - oneness of God, nothing can co-exist with God, god is the only one who is one and eternal - problem comes with is Quran eternal, or Gods speech is eternal, then are they exiting with God? - believed Quran created - believed God is non-anthropomorphic ---> did not believe God has human attributes ---> due to quran verse mentioning Gods hands, faces... ---> believed these were - believed many attributes did not exist with God ---> adl - God is just, reasoning(aql) tells us God is just - problem: telling God what he is - belief in freedom derived from here - God must reward good and punish evil ---> puts limits on God ---> " if i commit so much sin there's no hope so why not just commit more since", state of despair ---> reduced God's mercy and forgiveness - if God is just why suffering in this world
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