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Religious Studies
Danny M.Pincivero

Sept. 24 Secession to Prophet SAW - Ali was a candidate - to young about 30 - had enemies due to battles - to closely related to prophet - Abu Bakr was then changed - difference of opinion whether Ali gave allegiance to Abu Bakr - Abu Bakr expands empire beyond Arabian peninsula - Abu Bakr faced rebellions - certain tribes outside of medina did not except him as the leaders - one tribe refused to pay Zakat - Abu Bakr took this as betrayal - war of ridda began, the tribe became seen as apostasy - also a case of a false prophet, Musaylimah claimed to be a prophet - Abu Bakr's leadership lasted 2 years - appointed Umar as caliphate - Umar ruled for 10 years - expanded empire further, Persia Egypt - 638 reached gate of Jerusalem (city of the prophets) - besieged, surrounded city - Patriarch of Jerusalem gave keys of city to Umar - Muslims did not go around compelling others to become Muslim due to no compulsion in religion - people did become Muslims due to multiple reasons ---> convenience, economics, faith.... - Umar set up Diwan system, public treasury ---> those who converted first and closer to the prophet would get more money and those who converted later/ farther - Umar died 644, after assassination was left wounded - Umar set up a committee called Shura - six members appointed by Umar who decide who will be the next leader - two main candidates --> Ali ---> Uthman - conditions set ---> do you accept to rule by the Quran, Sunnah of Prophet, and Sunnah of first two Caliphs ---> Ali did not agree to final condition, but Uthman did and was appointed - Uthman ruled for 12 years - as a ruler he was easily manipulated - during the last 6 years many problems appeared - Nepotism ---> Uthman from Umayyad tribe ---> Nepotism is to favour family/tribe - One governor was caught drunk in public - rich were growing richer, but overall society wealth going down - Uthman killed by a group dissatisfied by Uthman's rule in Egypt - after death of Uthman, people went to Ali for ruler - Ali reluctant to lead need now to the many problems arising, but accepted - ruled only for about 5 - group that did not like Ali for numerous reasons ---> very strict ---> changed Diwan system so everyone equal, so some started getting less money - difficult time as some companions were against Ali and there was fighting between muslims Battle of Camel - took place in Basra - Aisha vs Ali - Aisha's group lost and Ali sent Aisha back to medina in an honourable way - Mu'awiya, another companion, Ali dismissed him - capital changed from medina to Kufa in Iraq, because people of medina were not as supportive in a war - Kufa people showed support for Ali - 657 a battle took place in Siffin Syria - Ali's army was winning - Mu'awiya stopped the battle by using quran and showing muslims should not fight - there was arbitration between to groups in 658 to see who would lead - Amr bin Aas from Mu'awiya, and Ash-ali from Ali met up - decided to remove both - Amr bin Aas tricked Ash-ali to put Mu'awiya Kharijis - Kharijis are now called the people who then betrayed Ali due to this happening - the Kharijis had a notion of the charisma lying with the community not with individuals - if someone commits a major sin they are no longer muslim - they intended to kill Mu'awiya, Amr bin Aas, and Ali on same night - Ali was injured and later died of those injuries - other 2 got away - they considered all 3 infidels, and felt killing was a favour to those - today kharijis are mostly in Muscan Omen, known as Ibadis - Kharijis were drawing sectarian boundaries Shi'a - Shi
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