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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 RELIG ST 2Q03.docx

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Department
Religious Studies
Course Code
RELIGST 2Q03
Professor
Liyakat Takim

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Lecture 4 RELIG ST 2Q03 Caliphs: Leaders after the death of the Prophet Abu Bakr was from the same tribe of the prophet Quresh ruled for 2 years the Rida war; apostasy­ to turn away from Islam  Waged war  se the law of Apostasy  Umar second caliph  Uthman third caliph he agreed to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, Umar and the Quran there was nepotism  lack of control  there was some time of uprising there was disentail  lead to a group that felt the governor who got away with drinking in public  was killed by this group that came from Egypt  Ali  656, Ali became the 4  caliph  was a man of principles did not like corruption  Mu’awiya was a governor of Syria faced rebellions and wars; faced 3 first was lead by the one of the wives of the prophet; daughter of Abu Bakr­ Ayesha  she was against it some of the companions that paid allegiance to Ali; then they urged Ayesha to lead a battle  SHE WAS USED ACCORDING TO HER STATUS Occurred in the year Ali came to power Battle of the Camel ‘Jamal ‘ in Arabic  Ali won that battle he treated Ayesha respectfully this was a big tragedy for Muslims  soon after this battle, Mu’awiya brought the bloody shirt of Uthman they belonged to the same tribe Ali did not take revenge for Uthman he wanted to wage war against Ali the capital was changed by Ali­ in Kufa it was moved because he had support there  he and the whole capital moved  The second battle took place in 657­ Mu’awiya charged towards Ali to Kufa; happened in Siffin;  its near Syria  Amr’b’Aas took pages of the Quran and put it on a spear; it was a strategy to avoid defeat  to show that we should not fight and stop blood shed against one another  there was an arbitration between the two sides  they decide what to do  Abu Musa was suggested that the community decide; he was naive and was tricked  there was pandemonium  Khariji/Khawarij they deserted Ali the first fundamentalist in Islam Salvation history  a way a community see themselves saved  it is the formation of a Sectarian system it creates divides, doesn’t only happen in Islam created borders called themselves Ahil al Janna it is conceived to being the right community  asking difficult questions  in order to be safe you had to abide by what they said  they said that anyone could be a caliph, and any ruler who was doing wrong were  sent to exile  they have their own laws that are different from Shi’a and Sunni laws they had their own standards  Ali was winning the battle Ali had to fight 3 wars in the span he was a caliph  Charisma once the prophet died the charisma spread amongst the people they raised the question of belief and action  Muslims today are fighting, and killing each other he ruled for 6 years Ali was forced was pious Shi’a; Shi’ite;Shi’li followers of Ali for the Shias the authority went to the family 
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