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Lecture 4

Islam Lecture 4.doc

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Religious Studies
Course Code
Liyakat Takim

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Islam Lecture 4 01/10/2013 - main feature of the time of abu-bakr: rida wars (community wouldn't pay tax, seen as apostasy) - he believed he could start war with them because of that - Umr: appointed by Abu-Bakr, hero for 10 years - Usman: 3rd caliph, people under him abused his power (group from Egypt came into his home and killed him) - then people turned to Ali (son in law, cousin of prophet) after 25 years of Muhammed's death - man of principle (had his own vision): wont tolerate corruption - Mu'awiya (governer of Uthman, and ali dismissed him because he didn't think he was fit to be the Governor) - Because of Ali's ideals he soon faced rebellion (first time we see civil war: muslims fighting with muslims) - Muslims generally respect all companions of Muhammed but were now killing them - Ali ruled for less than 6 years and faced 3 wars in that time - 1st war was led by Aisha (daughter of Abu Bakr, wife of Muhammed) - when Ali became caliph, she was against it - Aisha led the battle, occurred in 656 the year Ali became caliph (battle of camel because Aisha came riding a camel) (group that once followed Ali turned their back on him and urged Aisha to guide the war) - Aisha said this war was the revenge of Usman (but white lie because she didn't like Usman either) - Mu'awiya brought out blood stained shirt of Usman (Uman was killed, belonged same tribe as Mu'awiya) in the mall - Mu'awiya was mad at Ali because of what he did and Ali for the first time moved the capital (Medina to Kufa) - Kufa became capital of Islamic empire (he had more support there) - year 657 a battle ensued (in Siffin Syria) - painful battle: muslims killing muslims again, many killed - Ali didn't want the battle (said we're muslims why are we fighting) - Ali was winning battle until (Amr b Aas told Mu'awiya there was one way to win the war) the one way was to put pages of the Quran at the end of sword (strategy to win since they were losing) - Ali was forced to accept arbitration - Abu Musa and Amr b Aas said the community both don't Ali or Mu'awiya so lets remove both of them and let the community decide - a group from Ali's army turned against him (Khariji) they deserted him as well - they were the first "fundamentalists" in Islam (salvation history: history of how a community becomes) - formation of Sectarian syndrome: tries to create norms or border from which a community is saved, tries to define itself, you are only a Muslim if you believe certain things, when you draw borders you are creating an Orthodox and a Heterodox (what is right and what is wrong, people of heaven and people of hell) - if you aren't a Khawarij, you're going to hell (they said that Ali, Usman, were not believers - Khawarji was "my way or highway" went up to people on the street and questioned them, if they gave the wrong answer they would kill them - Ali had to fight another war now (3 wars in total) - charisma of prophet spread to the community (became intolerant) - raised question between belief and action - your sins effect your beliefs - people were attracted to Khawarji because they said anyone could be a caliph (any ruler who misbehaves has to be killed immediately) - were driven by faith to kill someone who didn't believe in the same thing - later on the Khawarij calmed down and became more moderate - Shi'a (Shi'ite) --> emerged during Ali, followed him, believed he was successor, supported him - For the shia's, the authority went to the family (al-bayt) of th
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