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Islam Lecture #3

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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Liyakat Takim

Intro to Islam Lecture 3 24/09/2013 - Meccan verses are shorter and poetic because it reflects Muhammad's life - The Quran reflects the changing lifestyles and circumstances of Muhammad - scripture injects a sense of God awareness (taqwa meaning God fearing, to be aware of God's presence, sense of conscious that is alive, before a person does wrong there should be a conscious that comes in and tells you not to, close personal connection with divine) (ON QUIZ) - differentiate between Islam (act of submission) and Iman (faith, in Islam is "im doing faith in God" rather than "have faith in God) (when "you're doing" something, you are engaged in it) - difference between faith and belief: faith is interactive and belief is something all people in a religious group share (faith is personal encounter and experience with divine, all Muslims can share the same belief but not the same faith, Muslims believe in satin but do not have faith in satin, belief doesn't change but faith must change (grow stronger) - faith is inner and personal - Islam puts emphasis on the word "faith" - Quran demands a social order (society) based on justice (the purpose of the state is to establish justice) and justice is established when the poor is taken care of (Zakat = taxes to help the poor, to look after the poor) - Quran is deeply convinced that human beings should not commit "moral suicide" (when a person has lost track of his or her morals) - amr bil marif wa nahy an al-al-munkar (promote good, forbid evil) (when somebody is doing evil, you go and tell them not to) (when somebody is not praying you tell them to go pray) (helping those who are morally weak) way of uplifting the morals of a community - women are supposed to be judged on character and personality rather than beauty - early period before prophet was a dark time as leaders were doing troubling things - standardization of history (no such thing, history is never clear-cut) in many cases history is written later on and most often by a man (his-tory not her-story) - orthadox: originally meant the "right" or "correct" way - history is composite (put different parts together to make a reasonable judgement of what it looks like, don't know 100% what happened) - written 115 years after prophet had passed away because in the earlier period everything was oral - history is also "tendentious" (tendency of taking you in a particular direction) (scholars need to be careful of writing orthodox and being tendentious) - succession through prophet mohammed (he was sick for three days) - the question now is who should succeed him? - muhammed may die but the community must exist - saqifa: meeting place (hall) in medina to make important (political) decisions (the two y groups of medina "helpers" and "migrators with mohammed," - soon after the prophet died the helpers met in saqifa to discuss who should succeed muhammed - when a muslim dies washed 3 times, shrub it, then burry it - two important companions of Muhammed (Abu-Bakr and Umar) went to saqifa found everyone there were from the "helpers" - much discussion and commotion - Abu-Bakr (father-in-law of prophet) suggested that the leaders should be from Quraysh (most important tribe) because it was a tribe of Mohammed when living in Mecca - A lot of dispute, some saying "Ali" (married the prophets daughter "Fatima" also the cousin of the prophet) should be the succeedor - Ali was rejected as leader and Umar (powerful and strong personality) took the head of Abu Bakr and said that he should be the one - since Umar was so powerful the rest of the community accepted it ( bay'a allegiance) - Shia "followers" believed Ali was the successor but that doesn't mean Ali was shia and Abu-Bakr was sunni because there was no shia and sunni back then - Shia ---> followers of Ali believed he should be the successor - why they believed shia should be the leader is that on his death bed the prophet asked for a pen and paper so the community will not be misguided after he passes (Umar and companions said prophet was not in the right condition to do so because he was sick and not in his senses) - Shia's say if they hadn't stopped him he would have said Ali - day of calamity: prophet gets denied pen and paper - natural death of Mohammed (63 yrs old) - Abu-Bakr then became the
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