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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Tristan Carter

SOURCE CRITICISM--CREATION GENESIS 1-3 OCTOBER 19, 2011 THE TORAH--OVERVIEW • First division of Tanak • Five Books o Genesis o Exodus o Leviticus o Numbers o Deuteronomy TORAH/PENTATEUCH THE FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES • Jews and Christians have traditionally believed that Mose s was the author (as well as the co -star) of the Torah. • Most biblical scholars today believe that many authors composed the Torah. • Two general reasons: o The way Moses is talked about o The number of repetitions and duplications in Torah A DUPLICATION Exodus 20 (NIV) Deuteronomy 5 (NIV) 8 Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 12Observe the Sabbath day by keeping it holy, as the LORD your God has commanded you. 9Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your14 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manserva nt or nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within maidservant, nor your ox, your donkey or any of your gates. your animals, nor the alien within your gates, so that your manservant and maidservant may rest, as you do. 11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the15 Remember that you were slaves in Egypt and that the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he LORD your God brought you out of there with a rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. the LORD your God has commanded you to observe the Sabbath day. GENESIS • Can be divided into three parts: o Primeval History (Genesis 1 -11) o The Story of Abraham and his Sons (12 -26) o The Story of Jacob (Israel) and his Sons (27 -50) • A slightly different division: o Primeval History (Genesis 1 -11) o Ancestral Stories (Genesis 12 -36) o The story of Joseph and the sons (people) of Israel (37 -50) • Genesis 1 locates this story in “cosmic context” and introduces the entire book, Pentateuch, Bible. • Different sources discoverable throughout Genesis. 1 Opening Lines of Enuma Elish 1. When the heavens above were yet unnamed, 2. And the name of the earth beneath had not been recorded, 3. Apsu, the oldest of beings, their progenitor, 4. "Mummu" Tiâmat, who bare each and all of them — 5. Their waters were merged into a single mass. 6. A field had not been measured, a marsh had not been searched out, 7. When of the gods none was shining, 8. A name had not been recorded, a fate had not been fixed, 9. The gods came into being in the midst of them. Enuma Elish (Tablet 4) 128. He [Marduk] turned back to Tiâmat whom he had defeated, 129. The Lord [Marduk] trampled on the rump of Tiâmat, 130. With his unsparing club he clave her skull. 131. He slit open the channels ( i.e., arteries) of her blood. 132. He caused the North Wind to carry it away to a place underground. 133. His fathers (i.e., the gods) looked on, they rejoiced, they were glad. 134. They brought unto him offerings of triumph and peace, 135. The Lord [Marduk] paused, he examined Tiâmat's carcase. 136. He separated flesh [from] hair, he worked cunningly 137. He slit Tiâmat open like a flat (?) fish [cut into] two pieces, 138. The one half he raised up and shaded the heavens therewith, 139. He pulled the bolt, he posted a guard, 140. He ordered them not to let her water escape. 141. He crossed heaven, he contemplated the regions thereof. Genesis 1:1-8 1. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. 3. And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. 4. God saw that the light was good, and he separated t he light from the darkness. 5. God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day. 6. And God said, “Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.” 7. So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. 8. God called the vault “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning —the second day. COSMOLOGY OF GENESIS (AND THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST) • /syllabi/g/gier/306/commoncosmos.htm THE STRUCTURE OF GENESIS 1 DAY REGION DAY CREATURE ONE Light FOUR Lights TWO Separation of waters FIVE Birds, sea creatures THREE Dry land, vegetation SIX Land creatures, human beings 2 Genesis 2:1-9 (NIV) 1. Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. 2. By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested fr om all the work of creating that he had done. 4. This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, when the LORD God made the earth and the heavens. 5. Now no shrub had yet appeared on the ea
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