RELIGST 2VV3 Lecture Notes - Parable Of The Lost Sheep, Israelites, Books Of Samuel
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October 3, 2011
Methods of Biblical Analysis
• 20th century saw a conflict between Christian fundamentalism and Historical Criticism
• Historical Criticism
o Source Criticism
o Form Criticism (Formsgeschichte)
o Redaction Criticism (Redaktionsgeschichte)
• Literary Criticism
o Narrative, plot, character, theme, genre
• Other Approaches
o Social-Scientific, Feminist, Postcolonial, Queer
• Source critics determine the sources that were used to put a text together.
• The Bible itself talks about other non-biblical sources. E.g.:
o Book of Jashar (Joshua 10:13; II Samuel 1:18)
o Book of the Acts of Solomon (I Kings 11:41)
o Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah (I Kings 14:29)
o Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel (I Kings 14:19)
• There are at least 40 references to various “annals” in the Bible.
Joshua 10 (NIV)
12 On the day the LORD gave the Amorites over to Israel, Joshua said to the LORD in the presence of Israel:
“Sun, stand still over Gibeon,
and you, moon, over the Valley of Aijalon.”
13 So the sun stood still,
and the moon stopped,
till the nation avenged itself on its enemies,
as it is written in the Book of Jashar.
The sun stopped in the middle of the sky and delayed going down about a full day. 14 There has never been a day
like it before or since, a day when the LORD listened to a human being. Surely the LORD was fighting for Israel!
15 Then Joshua returned with all Israel to the camp at Gilgal.
2 Samuel 1 (NIV)
17 David took up this lament concerning Saul and his son Jonathan, 18 and he ordered that the people of Judah be
taught this lament of the bow (it is written in the Book of Jashar):
19 “A gazelle lies slain on your heights, Israel. How the mighty have fallen! 20 “Tell it not in Gath,
proclaim it not in the streets of Ashkelon, lest the daughters of the Philistines be glad, lest the daughters of the
21 “Mountains of Gilboa, may you have neither dew nor rain, may no showers fall on your terraced fields. For there
the shield of the mighty was despised, the shield of Saul—no longer rubbed with oil.
22 “From the blood of the slain, from the flesh of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan did not turn back,
the sword of Saul did not return unsatisfied.
23 Saul and Jonathan— in life they were loved and admired, and in death they were not parted.
They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions.
24 “Daughters of Israel, weep for Saul, who clothed you in scarlet and finery, who adorned your garments with
ornaments of gold.
25 “How the mighty have fallen in battle! Jonathan lies slain on your heights. 26 I grieve for you, Jonathan my
brother; you were very dear to me. Your love for me was wonderful,
more wonderful than that of women.
27 “How the mighty have fallen! The weapons of war have perished!”
1 Kings 11 (NIV)
41 As for the other events of Solomon’s reign—all he did and the wisdom he displayed—are they not written in the
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