January 20 , 2014
Self & Identity
- Aroom of candy and the adult would say take one piece of candy then the adult would
excuse himself, the experiment entailed to see how much candy they would take.
- Treatment Group with mirror would only take one piece
- Other group without mirror would take many pieces
- When we’re self-aware, we are more likely to follow a set of standards from society and
- It tells us about “the self”
- Active impulsive self, reflective self
Self-concept / Self-schema: our thoughts about who we are, and our perceptions of our social
identities and personal qualities
- Self-awareness: to see one’s self differently from society=babies, ability to examine our
feelings and thoughts, happens at an early age (amongst animals?)
- Self-esteem: the overall emotional evaluation of their own work, self-work, linked to the
sense of control - the extent that we believe we have control over our lives.
- Self-knowledge: knowledge of the properties of our self (introvert vs. extrovert)
Early development of self-awareness
- Mirror test - a mirror is put in front of a baby and observing the connection of their own
actions in the mirror and realizing its themselves
The Nature & Genesis of Self
- Our understanding of the Self is drawn from Symbolic Interaction Theory
- The self is the individual viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behavior.
o The self is both active (the source that initiates reflexive behavior) and passive
(the object toward whom reflexive behavior is directed).
- Reflexive behaviour is important to be able to reflect on your actions and plan ahead to
imagine ourselves in the future.
According to George H. Mead:
The active aspect of the self is labeled the I.
The object of self-action is labeled the me.
Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking Glass Self (1902)
- People shape themselves based on what other people perceive, and confirm other people's
opinion of themselves.
“I am, who I think you think, that I am”
- Three components:
1. We imagine how we must appear to others.
2. We imagine the judgment of that appearance.
3. We develop our self through the judgments of others. - Children have ownership but babies are unaware of this
Stages in the Development of Self
- Role taking: The process of imaginatively occupying the position of another person and
viewing the self and the situation from that person’s perspective.
- Mead (1934) identified two sequential stages leading to the emergence of the self in
- The “I” develops first, then the “me”
1.The Play Stage
2.The Game Stage