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Lecture 4

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Social Sciences
Geraldine Voros

Social Sciences 20O3: Canadian Children Oct. 3 2012 Lecture 4: Nature vs. Nurture con’t & Early Socalization & Mom style vs. Dad style parenting Nature vs. Nurture - Meta-Analysis of Psychological Characteristics in class o Given characteristics, which sex shows higher levels (according to the class)?  Verbal abilities  Girls  Mathematical abilities  Boys  Visual/Spatial  Even  Aggression  Boys  Decoding non-verbal cues  Girls  Susceptibility to social influence  Girls o So with this, seems we think boys and girls are different  Due to socialization or due to biological determinants though? o How much is nature, how much is nurture? - Researchers do the Meta-Analysis o Maccoby and Jacklin  Average scores of males and females don’t differ in terms of IQ when they are young  Therefore, equally capable of learning English or math  No natural difference in intelligence  So why is there no equal distribution btw the genders across disciplines? o i.e Engineering vs. social sciences o Verbal skills  When little, girls talk more than boys  When get a little older, boys take over the convo  Monopolize the convo  Interrupt the girls o Group of men talking  Discussion  Of value o Group of women talking  Gossiping  No value  More socialization than nature  Equally capable should they care to speak o Math skills  Depends on the parents attitude to math first of all  If they believe it is easy, kids can learn it  If they believe it is hard to learn, kids find it difficult  Less the child’s ability to do math, more on if parents find math difficult  Boys and girls test equal here  But stereotype to the idea that boys can do math and girls can’t  Socialization again, not nature o Visual-spatial abilities  Ability to visually manipulate, locate, or make judgements about the spatial nd rd relationships of items located in 2 or 3 dimensional space  Find young kids have no diff based on gender  Both have innate ability  In pre-teen years, boys indicate an advantage in this ability over girls  Why did the girls stop developing this ability? o The way we give gifts in western society o Boys get gifts and toys which develop their visual spatial abilities  Legos, model airplanes etc.  Creating, exploring o Girls get gifts and toys that are static  Dolls, clothes  Materialistic basis  Distracts from dev of vis-spa  Looked at the Inuit  Live in harsh enviro, hunting very important  Boys and girls both taken hunting o When older, equally capable in vis-spa hunting skills o Survival depend on vis-spa ability  Girls must be equally adept  Given ample opportunity to dev o Aggression  Money and Erhart  Do boys have a pre-disposition to being aggressive? o No pre-disposition  Boys end up more aggressive though, why? o Treat boys and girls diff from birth o Start stereotyping right away o Boys as action, physical activity o Boys as sturdy, girls as delicate  Aggression as socialization, not nature o Decoding non-verbal cues  Girls have more of this ability than boys do  Due to nurture o Taught to be sensitive to the feelings of others o Good-girl syndrome o Taught to be people-pleasers o Men as assertive, girls as passive and submissive  Cultural lag from hunter-gatherers  Expect more non-verbal cues of how you feel about me o How big is the engagement ring? o Susceptibility to social influence  Def more girls than boys  Girls understand that the boys have the power o As a result, girls commit ourselves to preserve group harmony o Want to enhance pos feelings  Want everybody to be happy! o Not enough pie for everyone? Take mine  Will always sacrifice to make sure everyone’s happy  More a consequence of gender stereotypes than a fundamental bio difference in nurturing ability – Baso o Predispose our kids at a young age to diffs that are artificially constructed  Destine diff artificial realities for boys and girls  Gender bias or restrictive nurturing are all setting limits for both boys and girls - Judith bridges o Baby Card Stereotypes  Delimit boys and girls right the eff away  Boy cards  Featured more physical activity  More action toys  More aggressive animals (i.e. bears or dogs)  Messages commenting on the happiness of the parents  Girl cards  Featured passive images (i.e. hearts and flowers)  Babies dressed in lace and ribbons  Gentler animals (i.e. birds and rabbits) Early Socialization - Socialization into gender stereotypes o Children’s stimulation of parents  Boys and girls stimulate kids diff  See girls as fragile – hold them closer o Because we hold them closer, they are face to face with us and are more likely to try to imitate us – cause they can see us  See boys as less fragile – more reckless when holding them o Because we hold them more loosely, they have a higher level of activity  More flailing  Therefore, we pay more attn. to them – cause they are so squiggly  Also why they sleep less, are more irritable o Parent’s expectations  React differently to boys and girls  Hospital study  15 boys born to new parents o Describe your new baby  Firm  Large featured  Alert  Strong  15 girls born to new parents o Describe your new baby  Delicate  Fine featured  Smaller  Softer  Cute  See a predisposition to how we respond to the kids o Kindergarten children’s view of babies  Researchers took a four month old baby  Dressed it as a boy and called it John and also dressed it as a girl and called it Laura o Let the kids play with the baby for 5 minutes o Rate the baby on a scale  Whether john or laura  Boy kids and girl kids see baby as Little and Cuddly  When john  Noisy  Tough  Fussy  When laura  Quiet  Cheerful  Gentle  Tells us that by five years of age, kids have a distinct idea of the diff btw baby boys and baby girls o Parent’s treatment of kids  Treat Boys as  Encourage boys to defend themselves  Physical activity  Competitiveness
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