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2Q03 Women & Family .docx

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Social Sciences
Geraldine Voros

Social Science 2Q03 Origins of the Family Pre-civilization  There seems to be an ever-present male dominance that existed given research. Men had superior strength and they took advantage of that.  Women had the ability to pro-create, more and more pregnancies. Men did not know that sex was able to produce a child. Women were viewed as onus because they had the sole ability to create a society.  Women assumed responsibility for the child (sole parent). This results in a very powerful status for them. Men in fact believed that they could be the dominant individuals based on their strength. Women did not rebel against this authority.  10-15 thousand years ago 65 researchers concluded that men and women were connected based on the child. We know this based on cave walls drawings depicting the life cycle of antelopes Hunting and gathering Societies  There are no institutionalized families just clans that hunted and gathered together  From early researchers, hunters had the more important role. Women constantly gathered thus playing an important role. Women gathered about 80% percent of all food gathered. Women may seem under-valued because hunters are superior  Patri-loco: father determines the place of residence will be. Women and children were seen as the future. Men could be expendable.  !Kung clan: Africa, they are not parti loco but they have a shared authority between elder males and females. They do not migrate but they live close to a vast supply of water. All food is shared equally so that everyone can sustain himself or herself. The heroes in the culture are either men or women that can cure or heal. Warriors are seen as deviant because this society is very peaceful, they shun violence.  Mbuti tribe: when child is 2 years old, the mother brings that child were the father sits with a small plate of food. The child sucks on the male breast but receives no milk. The father gives the child food and its his first solid meal. The child then must call that male father. New Stone Age  Very pivotal. Took place 10-12 thousand years ago. Took rise in three areas: Tigris-Euphrates (Turkey through Iraq). Cradle of civilization (alphabet and written word. Second area: Nile Third: Indus River valley (Tibet through west Pakistan)  They domesticated animals, which would be used to eat food easily, and no need to migrate. These three areas are very fertile which allowed these societies to sustain themselves.  Concept of ownership of land developed. Men laid the claim to the land. Females would bear the children and cook, clean etc.  When men would die, they would leave their inheritance to their male son. This developed in an escalation of concept of family. Men would claim legitimacy of family because they wanted their child to carry on. In order to legitimize a child the men must conceive with virgin women would declare ownership.  Use of folkways (fads) based on staying in one place. It however became a mores (unwritten law). Civilized based on land area.  Start to see a heterosexual relationship thus becoming institutionalized. Patriarchy beginning. Spread of Christianity  4Ad-1560Ad.  Patriarchy is strengthened  3 Religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam  Christianity for example makes women lesser than men o Seen as dangerous, manipulative o Martin Luther believed in the inferiority of women. Affirmed in the faith o 200 derogatory terms for women during this time  3 exceptions of stereotypes of women: o Prioresses and abbesses were communities of women who lived together who were spiritually defined for the good, ie. Consoling, well educated. Also, learned medicine and health. They could not be both a mother or wife and Prioresses and abbesses. The church does not support them. As they service the communities they were earning more than the church. o Noble women of Estates. Ran these estates while husbands where at war o Work by their husbands in small fields and shops. Dual career family. Industrial Revolution  1700-1800. Canada was late 1800s.  Potential Emancipation.  Modernist theorists: As society develops, you were ascribing status ie. Upper, poor. With Industrial Revolution you could sell labor and earn a wage. This could benefit both men and women  As men and women the cultural lag was that men were worth more than women. They were payed less. Men needed a family wage and the patriarchy was that women did not  Women were doing canning and they brought that into the workplace  They did earn small amounts of money but less recognized to men o Cultural lag (men were always the bosses)  Rising Middle Class  Women’s intention is to marry well (comes from this era) o Also looking for mate habits is from this period  Women who are middle class is criticized for exploiting there husbands labor (Real Housewives of LA) o However opposite is true (slept her way to the top) if she is successful  Everyone had a fair chance for success, yet social justice was not apparent Victorian Era  Women did spend a lot of time being creative ie. Needle spinning, crafts. Used to preoccupy things based on the fact they had maids  Women were in charge of hiring housemaids, teachers  This added to the idea of female inferiority, (a women’s place is in the home)  In order for women to attract a rich mate, she would show she is a cut above ie. Liteate o If women were painters or writers, it would be sold as a male. No one wanted to buy a female work  Suppress women and relegate them as inferior  Male entitlement was huge Modern Times  Women have now realized that they are capable of doing wellon there own. They go to school  They feel that they do not need to marry  More than ever women have a different mindset to men and family o Less feeling towards children  They feel this struggle is still apparent ie. Glass ceiling Canadian Women  Jeanne Mance 1642 o Well regarded women, had a cause people would lend support o Built a fort called Ville Marie (Hospital) o She treated everyone equally o Subtle acceptance of Universal Health  Just did it for helping others, not money  Marguerite Bourgeoys 1650 o Got idea to start a colony school she was upper class o She joined the convent o Came to be an educator and to start the first school  Only one young girl that was able to be educated  She then educated natives from the new world  Native women taught white women how to harvest properly and to handle winter  Thanadelthur 1700 o Native women who becme affiliated with York Fur trade. o Chipwin Girl who had her camp overrun by enemy o Became slave to the Cree o Escaped and goes off to see if she can find Chipwin, she fainted Chipwin found her in 1714 o They make her well and she learns the English language  Mary Anne Shadd 1823 o Born free slave, editor, lawyer o Moved from Atlanta to Canada o Educated black and white Canadians o Wrote a 44 page booklet for Americans o She in her book criticizes the Refugee Home Society because he was giving charity to Blacks  In order to counter the black stereotypes, she began a newspaper in 1853  Although she could not be editor (stereotype) she uses a male front for the newspaper (rev. Newman)  Preached integration not segregation Traditional/Orthodox Model of family and Marriage Men  Men are economic providers  Men are instrumental persons  Active participants in the external world  Men are responsible for the socioeconomic status of the family in society Women  Confined to home  Domestic caretakers  Expressive individuals  Charge of the home front  Influential in terms of quality of life Family Types  Traditional o Moving into the 1900’s, men set certain conditions of how they will participate in jobs o They could work outside the home but home was the priority  Men will stereotype job as hobby  Not seen as important compared to husband’s  Neotraditional o Equal o Males seem to understand that she has a job  Her career is very important o With regards to negotiations, we do see that the male partner offers unconditional support o Enjoy marriage because  Matriarchal o Women can rank higher than their partner ie. Education, rank, income o In this position she takes the primary role o She has power and authority o Person who earns more has authority  Egalitarian o Share responsibility equally o Work together to ensure everything is done o Mutual support How could women in PEI in 1800’s hold a stranglehold on Canadian Politics  What constitutes the quandary of should we bring in troops to fix the problem  If we take a look at the rich, it was the men working and women had a Victorian lifestyle o Women concerned themselves with bread, butter, berries and babies o Believed that the peasant women were also doing this  …Far different  Women were doing everything ie. Caregiving, working, maintaining there house  Anything women could do to fight off the police to protect their homes. They did.  This violence changed women’s role  Other poor women were collaborating with others to fight cops  They would not arrested but the men were  If you have this crowd action, what are you gonna do with the kids or a pregnant women in jail  Gendered strategy o These challenges demanded innovation o Desperate time for desperate measures, reactive collective action o Social Justice  Rich and middle class petitioned the husbands for a farming class so they can be included in politics o They took that agreement  Subset of rules: women peasants were to disenfranchised, no position or rights  Women were denied expression in PEI Mothers and Daughters: Dependent Positions  The entitlement that males have traditional enjoy, what is it that women get by maintaining there position?  Researches are trying to understand to stay o The goodies (secondary gains)  Women gain: food, clothes, money,  Wome
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