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SOCIOL 1A06 (735)

Sociology 1.pdf

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Sandra Colavecchia

Race and Ethnic RelationsChapter 8 NSChapter 15 SIQChapter 16 SIQFrom SIQ page 159Ethnic groups are distinguished by ancestry culture and social locationRaces have relatively unique ancestries cultures and social locations too In addition races differ from ethnic groups and from one and another in terms of visible physical characteristics such as skin color that are socially defined as significant and that areSociologistFocus on inequality and powerSocial significance of categories of race and ethnicityFocus on discriminationRace and Ethnicity as achieved statusesTypically viewed as something youre born with something you cannot changeBut sociologist are interested in how these statuses are acquired by social definition and how they may change through the course of an individual life timeRace and Ethnicity as socially constructedUsed by scientist up until the 50s to make conclusion about different racial groupsIn the 50s they realize that this isnt right and scientifically sound and change their perspectiveThey discover as well that genetic differences are very small between racial groups and are not significantRace as a biological myth1 of people of the same race share the same genesUnderstanding discrimination and how they maintain inequalitiesObjective definitions of ethnicity ethnicity as fixed and static LanguageCultural practicesCustomsNational originsSubjective approaches to ethnicity ethnic identity as variable and flexibleSelf defined Example of study done on students in university of Caribbean background who found that their social ethnicity was strongly present when gone to university as opposed to in high school where they were not defined by race They found themselves surrounded by people of their own race Overtime these students said they were selfdefining through their race and ethnicityExample of Quebec separatist who imagine a future province where only those who live in Quebec now would be a part of it They are defining themselves by geographic positioning and creating their own ethnic representation of themselves This is reffered as civic nationalism But a minority of Quebecois nationalist reject that idea and say it shouldnt only be based on the geographic residence They say the membership to a future separatist country would be defined by the language you spoke and also by your cultural heritage speak French and of French decent with long roots within Quebec culture These are ethnic nationalist Another group believe that the only real Quebecois are those who are the descendents of the original settlers beforeNew France was conquered by the British All of these are consistent with subjective approach to ethnicityLast example has to do with how Canadians identify themselves in terms of ethnicity When stats Canada asked how do you identify yourself they did not include Canadian but now they do Before they identify as Italian Chinese etc Lecture Notes Page 1 now they do Before they identify as Italian Chinese etcTable 81 from NS tells us that the most popular identification is Canadian Many will identify as Canadian but also with another ethnic response such as your parentsbackgroundPage 184 NSEven though race is a hollow biological concept and even though ethnic identities and boundaries are neither fixed no unchanging many people believe in the existence of ethnicity and race and organize their relationships with others on the basis of those beliefs Therefore race and ethnicity are important parts of our social realityHes highlighting how our beliefs of race and ethnic groups can have an effect on different groups We see this on how we treat certain groups of immigrants Historically we see that some ethnic groups are assumed more superior the other groups Until the 1960s the belief was that it was only white European immigrants that would be the best choices for immigration Institutional RacismDiscriminatory racial practices built into institutions economic political and educational3 formsBased on racist ideas1Explicit racist ideas aIn Canadian history denying certain people rights to vote in federal elections bChinese Aboriginal Internment of JapaneseCanadians during WW2cInstitutional practices that were originally racist but no longer are2Treatment of seasonal migrant workers mostly from the Caribbean and aMexicoThe Canadian government had a policy implying that these people could bcome work in the summer but could not stand our winters thus they could only work during the summer time This thinking that these people cannot work during the winter is no longer cofficially stated however the government still has migrant worker policiesInstitutions that unintentionally restrict the chances of certain groups3Putting policies in place where the policies have the effect of hurting certain agroups but those who wrote them did not have those intentionsRacial profiling by police is an example of this We know that visible bminorities are more likely to get pulled over by police officers then whitesAmongst police officer and firefighters have certain height and weight crequirements which restricts certain people from applyingInformal recruiting methods for employers who ask their employees to go dfind new workers Generally if your employees are white they will go find white people And example of this was done in a study of IT firms in Ottawa and London Many of these IT firms were recruiting their friends who happen to also be white male which did not allow for racial diversity within these firmsNew RacismNew racism is a theory that suggests that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities One group is neither better nor worse than another but feelings of antagonism will be aroused if outsiders are admitted p 204 NSSociologists believe that the racism that we know claiming whites are better then others has been replaced by this new racism that is just as problematic These new ideas claim that people of different races are culturally different and that this assumption of cultural differences is then used to support policies that end up having the effect of discriminatingLecture Notes Page 2 differences is then used to support policies that end up having the effect of discriminating against visible minoritiesExample in NS Debates that took place in the British parliament in the 1970s about people of the former British colonies were allowed to enter the country freely Other politicians argued that these potential new comers are culturally different and their differences could be harmful to British society According to New Racism if the underlining intent is to exclude its still racism Impact of New Racism is the same unequal treatmentDifference between Prejudice and DiscriminationPrejudiceHostilityNegative attitude towards an individual because they belong to a different ethnic or racial groupDiscriminationUnequal treatmentDenial of equal opportunity because of their racial background13 of Canadians are prejudice against a group of people Table 82 NSPerceptions of discrimination whether people have experienced it20 of minorities have experienced discrimination sometimes or oftenRecent surveys find that 9 of Canadians consider themselves strongly or moderately racist92 of Canadians have witnessed discrimination9 would react negatively if their child would marry someone of a different racePorters vertical mosaicEthnic occupational inequalityEthnic groups tend to occupy different and unequal jobs New research suggests that even if this is not as present it is still seenWhite PrivilegeUnearned privilege that whites benefit fromOccupational social economic advantages all because of the color of your skin that visible minorities dont haveConcept developed by Peggy McIntosh Feminist and AntiRacist Scholar and ActivistTable 84Point system that chooses immigrants on the basis of education ability in English and French work experience age arranged employment in Canada adaptability3 Groups Facing InequalityAboriginals economic and health outcomes1Most inequalities in CanadaStatus cardsReservesHigh levels of unemploymentHigh levels of povertyLiving in bad housingDont always have clean drinking waterNo access to affordable nutritious food junk foods are more affordableHigh death ratesLow life expectanciesCrimeSuicide Lecture Notes Page 3
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