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SOCIOL 1A06 (735)

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Sandra Colavecchia

1/16/2013 1:53:00 PM 2006 Census – (we don’t need to know numbers)  16.5% of Canadians self-defined as a member of a visible-minority group  Large cities have higher proportions of visible minorities  Canada accepts more immigrants than any other country in the world  Many minorities have done well in Canada because they already have a high educational background  Most immigrants come as independent o The immigration policy utilizes a point system o It selects people on the basis of their education, work experience, linguistics, age, employment prospects o Biased in terms of people who will do well occupationally 3 Groups Facing Inequality  Aboriginals (economic and health outcomes) o Living conditions are a kin to regions from the global south (underdeveloped, third world) o No access to clean water, not being able to afford nutritious foods o Cost of food is very high, non-nutritious foods are more affordable o Have a higher death rate, shorter life expectancy o Plagued with problems (divorce, substance abuse, etc, etc) o Some scholars have suggested a theoretical framework around historical and intergenerational trauma to understand why we see these problems  Impact children in 2013, which have been raised by parents that have been previously subjected to what the kids are being presently subjected too  Black men (economic outcomes suggest persistent discrimination) o They experience higher unemployment and lower incomes which is NOT because of inadequate work experience or lower educational opportunities o Incomes are not inline with what they should be, given work and education experience o For black women: their earnings do tend to match up with levels of education and work experience o For black men: there is a miss-match  Recent immigrants (poorer outcomes as compared to earlier waves of immigrants) o They have not done as well as earlier waves of immigrants o They have not experienced the same kind of upward mobility which is surprising because they are more educated and have more work experience o They don’t end up working the same fields when they arrive in Canada o They end up working largely in the unskilled and un- supported sector Social Psychology:  Frustration-aggression theory o Focus on how prejudice and racism satisfy the psychological needs of people o When people are frustrated over blocked opportunities this leads to prejudicial attitudes and racism o When people cant find jobs they blame others (ethnic minorities) for their employment difficulties  Criticism: doesn’t respond to why people feel frustrated  Doesn’t explain why these minorities become the scapegoats (why not scapegoat another group?)  Primordialism: o People have attachments which reflects the innate tendency who want to spend time with others who are similar to themselves (same language, culture, beliefs, ancestry, appearance.. skin colour etc.) o This is all about maintaining social boundaries o People show nepotism (favoritism), to people that are close to them (family) or people who look like them (same colour skin), this is about evolutionary advantage (wanting to pass on your genes to people who are of your own race or ethnicity)  Criticism: Predict that there is no evolutionary advantage of harming other people of the same ethnic group  Why it is that people will work together to deal with racism  Normative Theories: o Prejudices are learned through agents of socialization o Some people are raised by those who have racist attitudes, and some are raised by those who don’t o The media is important: mainstream media tends to be white, although there have been significant improvements o Language: can shape how we evaluate different racial group o Example of the above language: the word “black”  Specifically how the word “black” is being used in different ways to reproduce or create recent negative ways of blacks  Criticism: don’t tell us where the ideas come from in the first place  Marxist Theory: o Economic interests  Slavery  Racism o These theorist argue that racism is a set of ideas, that is used by capitalists to justify the actions of certain people o Racism did not cause slavery (in the US), instead, you had Capitalist and the owners of the plantations had very clear economic interests (minimal labour costs), and that could be established through slavery only because there would be so many people working for so little and getting a job done fast o Racist ideology useful to capitalists because it prevents class consciousness and justifies lower wages  Criticisms: It can’t explain why we have some kinds of
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