March 5 , 2014
Deviance and Crime
- Nelson Mandella
- Dr. Morgentaler (with Jack Layton NDP)
o Abortion Doctor, previously being a normal Doctor
o He witnessed several women severely injure themselves from self-
- Rosa Parks - stand against segregation for the back of the bus
- Louis Riel
Figure 14.4 Homicide Rates in Selected Countries, 2010
- Highest rate is United States
- Bottom is Japan
o Why does murder vary across different countries?
o Access to fire arms, high rates of incarceration
o Offenders are publicly shamed in U.S. vs. Japan
o Big gaps between rich and poor this will give a bigger rise to crime and
- Former prof for Colvecchia. Born in the U.S. Drafted into military service in the
Vietnam War. Fled to Canada as a Graduate student and completed his PhD in
Canada. He wrote “Northern Passage: American Vietnam War Registers in
- Norm Violations are when we go against what is expected of us.
Severity: How harmful the act is. How much agreement there is that the behaviour is
wrong. The severity of the punishment imposed.
1. Consensus Crimes: Acts that are viewed as harmful and wrong and everyone
agrees these crimes are wrong. Examples: Murder, Homicide, Attempted
Homicide, Sexual Assault, Kidnapping. “mala in se” = evil in themselves
2. Conflict Crimes: Societal disagreement. There is conflict in society how
problematic these things are and how we should respond to these things.
Examples: legal language as “male prohibita”: wrong by definition. Wrong in that
cultural period. Examples: Squiggie kids who approached cars in intersections in
Toronto, Begging, drug use, drug sale, treason, shoplifting, right-to-life offences
(abortion, assisted suicide). Sue Rodriguez: had a progressive disease that
leads to death, and came before legislation to change the law of consent for assisted suicide. Robert Latimer: Saskatchewan farmer, and had a life sentence
for killing his disabled daughter.
3. Social Deviations: NON-Criminal. Influences of your family, friends and people
(Informal social control).
i. Adolescents (delinquency)
ii.Interpersonal (mental illness)
iii.Vocational (job = non-criminal violations of public and financial
trust) Examples: pictures of TTC workers sleeping on the job
4. Social Diversions: Sexual and Symbolic. (piercings, and sexual preferences)
** The public and political debate in this country surrounding the treatment of Afghan
detainees is consistent with Hagan’s idea of conflict crimes.
A Sociological Perspective
- How is social change related to crime and deviance? - Sociology
- How do some behaviour become criminalized over time?
- Why are some groups at a higher risk of being victims/offender?
- What made this particular offender commit this crime? - Psychology
- Increase in property crime in North America - Opportunity Theory
o 60s, 70s, 80s
- During this time, a big social change because women were in paid employment,
and therefore homes were empty.
- Things people were stealing televisions, radios
- History of drug use in Canada and criminalization of using and selling drugs, the
process of criminalizing behaviours are complicated.
- People who have looked at early human societies, almost all human societies
have indulged in some form of drug use and mind altering substance abuse.
- Near Universal drug use
- Tobacco/Alcohol legal
- 2014 - heroine, morphine, cocaine haven’t always been against the law
o “Cocaine toothache drops