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Lecture

Research design methodology and methods

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 1A06
Professor
Douglas Davidson
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociology lecture 3 Th Sept. 27 2011 Research Design, Methodology & Methods Note taking Research design quantitative/qualitative methods Research design: at the beginning you have a very broad research interest – narrow it down to a specific topic – review literature- find the holes in the literature – narrow your topic even further – research question/hypothesis – research methods To collect data: Participant observation, surveys, interviews To analyze data: content analysis, statistical analysis for quantitative data, narrative analysis for qualitative data. Quantitative: *there are also researchers that also engage in mixed methods. They use from both qualitative and quantitative. – researchers begin with hypothesis and why questions. (relationships between variables) – purpose statement: to explain phenomena, to test hypothesis (deductive reasoning) Scale: Larger sample sizes methods: surveys, statistical analysis, content analysis Qualitative Begins with what & how.. purpose: to explore phenomena (inductive reasoning) Engages in in depth reasoning . Begins with methods and purpose statements scale: smaller sample sizes methods: ethnographic methods participant observation – involves active participation in the daily life activities of those he or she is observing. It is qualitative in nature. uses processes of induction as opposed to deduction – Covert: those in the field are not informed of the researchers status – semi covert: only some people involved are aware – open: everyone is aware of the researchers status in-depth interviewing content analysis “Any systematic procedure which is devised to examine the content of recorded information” Media Analyzed- Newspapers, books, pamphlets, graffiti, film, tv ect. Content analysis procedures: determines research problem, determine unit of analysis, secure the material, specify units of analysis, conduct analysis: Reading & coding, analyze results Quantitative methods: Key Concepts Hypothesis: In quantitative research one begins with a testable theory – a tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically. – Variables are used to measure relationships independent variable- can be varied or manipulated dependant variable- is the reaction (or lack thereof) of the manipulation operational definition: describes how a variable is measured. Survey Design Types of data- demographic- refers to things like age/income/household aka census data social environment- characteristics of a neighbourhood/employment pattern activities- refers to data about consumer habits/leisure use opinions/attitude- what people think/do Survey Design Cross sectional- a survey trying to reach a cross section on a very broad poll longitudinal- a survey that takes place over a long period of time trend- trying to chart the rise and fall of specific trends cohort- survey looking at a specific generation and certain demographics Sampling: Probability: aka the random sample – each person in the group has an equal chance of being surveyed Accidental- when a person asks a random person – there is bias with this sample purposive- when a researcher is trying to target a specific population snowball- used when researching a very specific inaccessible sample that is hard to get to. Example of q
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