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SOCIOL (2,117)
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SOCA01-Lecture 4 notes Aspects of socialization: Primary socialization: Rene Spitz study: -did a study in an orphanage -children have minimum human contact -results during primary socializationthey don’t rely on others, they become distant and remote and non-communicative -has physical consequences -the link b/w mind and body is a fact-ex. if people who are sick believe that they are going to get better, very often they do get better -reason why faith healing works -more infection, higher death rates, slower maturation, possibility of impaired sexual functioning upon maturity -have profound effect on intimate human contact later in life -primary socialization begins at birth by parents who pass on cultural knowledge -siblings can also play a part -Spitz-primary socialization important for emotional adjustment later in life -if child is socially handicapped, there is usually violence at home -therefore, they tend to use violence in adulthood as a response to violence during socialization -children who are praised, encouraged, and complimented are more likely to be adjusted than those who are put downdestroys self esteem -educational theorists say you should give students an A or they will lose self-esteemself-esteem movement -should not insulate children from failure b/c it is a fact of life -when does primary socialization end? -parental influence begins to decrease once children enter school (but still continues to a lesser extent) History: -children were expected to conform to adult norms -child labour-work at 5, full time by 10, marriage by 16 -childhood is a new idea -children in the past were mini-adults and expected to be capable of behaving like adults -when that didn’t happen children were punished harshly -modern view is differentchildren are incapable of behaving like adults PIAGE-theory of socialization -says children cannot behave like adults -harsh punishment of children today is discouraged -ideas of adolescence are also new terms -in traditional societies when you became physically mature, you married -b/c lifespan wasn’t long in those societies Secondary socialization: -child has other influences in life -begins w/ school -different ways of thinking are introduced -“kiddy culture”the kids have their own culture which is very sexist therefore cannot rid the sexual stereotyping b/c they pick up sexist attitude from kiddy culture -its important and trumps and neutralizes the impact of parents -ex. of secondary socialization part time job -ex. Mcjobsjobs w/ low pay, low security, no fringe benefits -ex. full time jobs -ex. becoming a parent/grandparent (as you age people expect you to act like an old person) -gerontology is the study of old age -secondary socialization as adult socialization: -Lynddie Englandpart of the military and convicted of torturing prisoners in Abugrab -adult roles are often discontinuous -children expected to be submissive -as you become an adult, you are expected to become more assertive which is key to becoming successful -their roles are not visible and are unpredictable -Anticipatory socialization: people think about their future and begin preparing for them and so they anticipate what it would be like to be in those roles Flexible self: -people’s identities change faster today -due to factors such as globalization and technological innovations -when exposed to cultural aspects, people are constantly modifying themselves Agents of socialization (significant others): -family-mastering basic skills -school-critical for secondary socialization Conflict theorists-suggest school have a hidden curriculum that teaches children how to behave in society after they graduate -visible curriculumread information, learn it, be tested on it -must have discipline and motivation -reason why employers like people who have university degrees -siblings, parents, teachers -if a teacher treats students w/ respect and as if they are smart, students will respond that way -Thomas theorem: situations we define as real become real in their consequences -peers, peer groups, religion, sports teams -peer groups: critical, made up of individuals of the same age, similar status (recognized position in society) -will acquire peer groups as they go through life -help children and adolescents separate from families and become independent -sports teams: it teaches you to subordinate (place at a lower level) your personal self interest for the group -it allows you to commit yourself to some super-ordinate goal (a goal larger than yourself, above individual’s interest) -commit yourself to a group goal, to society etc. -the mass media: can reach millions of people in an instant, its global Marshall McLuhanglobal village=the world of today passes information around at the same rate as the old traditional village -modern media had turned the world into a global village -mass media creates pop culture=COCA colonizationthe spread of American popular culture around the world -modern music comes from America (popular music) -its new (only since 1950s) -violence in the mass media, does watching violent popular cause people to be violent?-->NO Continuity/Discontinuity -sometimes the agents of socialization preach/carry different messages -when agents carry the same message = CONTINUITY -when agents carry different messages = DISCONTINUITY Role straininconsistent role expectations attached to the same status = discontinuous Role conflictstatuses have conflicting role expectations Nature vs. Nuture debate -focused on effect of race, biology and intelligence -Hereditariansbelieve that race has an impact on intelligence -they are a distinct minority in the social science community -most reject this view b/c race is fiction, it is socially constructed -ever since the dawn of time, people have been intermarrying ex. many Aboriginals are half European and half Asian therefore they cannot say that they are a race -thus, cannot attribute intelligence to it Gender differences: -feminists say that femininity and masculinity is not innate -they adopt radical nurture outlook (that men and women are socially structured—kind of political) -say that we learn through the mass media (some through family) -some people don’t accept messages of gender roles -traditional gender roles have become increasingly challenged Male/female differences: -some studies say there are innate differences, come reject this view -ex. math and reading -girls score higher on verbal while boys score higher on mathematical abilities -this only shows on large social aggregates (the larger the sample size, the more likely you find differences) Is it nature or nurture? -by the time children can read and do math, they’ve already been socialized -the ability to read or do math presumes socialization -how do you separate nature
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