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Lecture 9

SOCIOL 2D06 Lecture 9: Deviance FINAL

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McMaster University
Sarah Clancy

Wednesday, March 22, 2017 Deviance Objective vs. Subjective Approaches 1. Objectivist
 - Concerned with causes of and solutions to social deviance 2. Relativist/Subjectivist
 - Deviance is subjective meaning it is an interpretation of meaning - There are 6 types of Relativist Perspectives: 1. Historical Relativity 2. Cross-cultural Relativity 3. Situational Relativity 4. Gendered Relativity 5. Generational Relativity 6. Temporal Relativity Early Theories of Deviance: Biological Theories • Biological perspective on deviance: a violation of established social norms due to biological factors 1. Atavism (Lombroso, 1911; 1972) • Major work: ‘Criminal Man’ • Focus: physical mutations are moral mutations/primitive • Therefore, less ‘moral fibre’ you have
 - Theories are male-centric 2. Somatotypes Theory (Sheldon, 1949) • First began testing theory in the 1940’s based on an all-male study involving undergraduate students at the University of Chicago 1 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 • In 1949, applied to the theory to 200 males with anti-social personality disorder from a centre called ‘Hayden Goodwill Inn’
 - Had a comparison group of non-deviants • According to Sheldon, each body type has unique characteristics and associated personality traits
 - Findings: Mesomorphs are most likely to be deviant Body Type Characteristics Personality Traits Endomorphs round, soft, heavy and flabby easy going, mellow, outgoing and lazy Ectomorphs thin,slender, tall and frail rigid, sensitive, nervous and quiet Mesomorphs muscular, well-built and strong loud, outgoing, bullies, tough and insensitive 3. Hereditary Theory (Dugdale, 1910) ‘Theories of Degeneracy’ • Research part of the “eugenics” era
 - Deviance is highly related to the eugenics moment
 - The idea of the degenerate movement is not in the past • Deviance is hereditary
 - Racial bias by trying to label individuals as other and label them as unworthy Dugdale (1910) studies the family known as the ‘jukes’ • The Jukes were a pseudonym in order to protect their privacy
 - consisting instead of over 40 families with only 540 of its 700 members related by blood
 - This family was studied based on their blood line to see if they would be deviant • They found many of them engaged in deviance in this case incest
 - They are trying to find a relationship between genetic bond and deviant acts • Biological criminology was closely related to the Eugenics movement in America
 - Emphasis of Lombrosian and other forms of biological criminality had a significant effect on American penology
 2 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 - Led to a nationwide moral crusade in favor of sterilization as the ultimate solution to the problem of hereditary criminality Video Example: Anderson Cooper 360 discusses compensation from the Eugenics program in the United States Comments: 1. Why were individuals subject to this situation and how can individuals be helped to cope with this occurring?
 - These were structural level policies that impacted the lives of individuals
 - These programs and policies still happen and are not far into our history Limitations of Biological Theories 1. What are come critiques of the biological theories of deviance? 2. What do you think about these theories? Early Theories of Deviance: Psychological Theories • Perspective on deviance: individuals deviate due to lack of proper psychological development or management 1. Psychoanalytic Theories (Freud)
 - Importance of working through problems and issues in childhood
 - Unresolved issues can lead to problems later in the life course, such as deviance and crime
 - To resolve this they must worth through and fulfill all stages and resolve all issues in childhood 2. Frustration-Aggression Theory ( Dollard, doob, Miller, Mower and Sears)
 - Frustration/aggression arises when goals are not met and when no outlet for frustration/aggression exists
 - Therefore, the anger will build up so the individual will use crime or deviance as an outlet
 - For example, Columbine Mass Shooting Early Theories of Deviance: Social Structural Theories 1. Functionalism (Durkheim) 3 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 • Durkheim believed that deviance in society is functional and necessary
 - Society is an organism that flows and is harmonious • We need deviance to teach us norms, values and boundaries Four Functions of Deviance 1. Group Solidarity: if there is a break in a neighbourhood then there is a group watch established 2. Boundary Setting: if someone commits a crime it will show others the checks and bounds that they need to abide by 3. Raising the Value of Conformity 4. Innovation: implementing a new policy or law such as implementing more red lights to stop speeding 2. Durkheim’s (1897) Theory of Suicide • Suicide is a result of societal, not individual factors (i.e., the degree of social integration and social regulation)
 - It is important to have a good balance between the both so that one is not higher than the other • Findings:
 1. Protestants have higher rates from Catholics due to their doctrines view of society
 2. Men have higher rates than women due to gender socialization where women use less severe means to commit suicide while men use more violent means
 3. Single people have higher rates than married people due to integration
 4. People without children have higher rates than those with children due to responsibility and roles of having someone that depends on you
 5. Women who are married with children have the lowest rate of all due to intersectionality above • Types of suicide
 1. Altruistic — willing to sacrifice life for the good of the group such as cults 
 2. Egoistic — isolation from society such as a depressed individual
 3. Fatalistic— no room to maneuver in society such as prison
 4. Anomic — no rules so there is too much freedom • Anomie: ‘normlessness’ which means there is an uncertainty of rules and expectations 4 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 3. Robert Merton (1968) • Anomie: unfulfilled goals and expectations due to goals/means • Goals / means gap: taught the goals for success, but not the means of achieving these goals
 - We have the understanding of what the expected goals are but they do not have the opportunities or resources to fulfill and achieve these goals • Strain: experience strain when we try to achieve society’s goals but cannot do so • Modes of Adaption/ Merton’s Typology
 1. Conformists — accept both goals and means such as working more shifts
 2. Innovator — accepts goals, but finds new means (illegitimate means) such as drug dealing
 2. Ritualist — not “law-breakers” but realize “…they cannot obtain some of the things valued in society…live traditional lives…but give up trying to achieve wealth and other societal goals…” 
 3. Retreatist — do not accept either goals and means: give up (withdraw, retreat from society and often form subcultures)
 4. Rebellion — rejects both goals and legitimate means of attainments and finds new goals and therefore new means such as Jonestown 4. Cohen’s (1955) status frustration • Studied juvenile delinquency and juvenile delinquency subcultures
 - How do they understand and act towards the strain they face • Anomie leads to strain, which leads to status frustration to which individuals respond with non-utilitarian deviance
 - This makes this theory different from frustration-aggression theory • He wanted to know why they engaged in delinquency that had no purpose, no rational and met no goals
 - It acted as an outlet for the anger they were experiencing • Strain leads to status frustration Case Study: Anomie and Strain • Murder of Ted Ammon, a rich upper-class individual in the elusive resort area of the Hamptons 5 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 • Other important people in the case: Generosa Ammon and Daniel Pelosi • There are many different actions in this unusual case that we can consider deviant or criminal • Let’s watch this clip and see how these theories can apply to this case
 - Link: ABC 20/20. (2012). “Murder in the Hamptons –Who Done It?” Retrieved from Early Theories of Deviance: Social Structural Theories • These theories are specifically based in social and self control
 - Focus is on social bonds and arrangements • Social and self-control theories include these main theories:
 1. Reckless’ containment theory
 2. Nyes family ties theory
 3. Hirschi and social bonding • Focus: Lack of social or self controls leads to giving into impulses, which can often be deviant behaviour • Forms of inner and outer control; personal and social control help us to remain law- abiding and conforming members of society 1. Reckless’ (1962) Containment Theory • Based in macro-sociology and looking at external forces • EXTERNAL FORCES (i.e., low socio-economic status, lack of legitimate opportunities, etc.,) and INTERNAL FORCES (i.e., motivation, feelings of inferiority, etc.,) and weakened forms of inner (i.e., reduced self-concept, etc.,) and outer (i.e., rules and regulations, etc.,) containment push and pull people towards deviance • Criticism: it is hard to separate inner and outer forces because they can be so interconnected to one another 2. Nyes Family Ties Theory • We learn the following through family socialization:
 (1) Internal controls – internalization values, norms and beliefs
 (2) Indirect controls – having a sense of shame or guilt about committing deviant acts
 (3) Direct controls – laws or other formal regulations set up institutions or formal 6 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 agents of socialization/social control and can begin with school where we start to learn rules and regulations
 (4) Need satisfaction – a sense of belonging by feeling loved, wanted and nurtured
 - Greatest likelihood in someone choosing a life of crime • Weak controls = deviance • Strong controls = conformity 3. Theory of Social Bonding and Social Control Theory by Hirschi (1969) • He argues that individuals have 4 bonds with society:
 (1) Attachment – Connections with society, often emotional, anchoring with and by people and society
 (2) Commitment – Accept societal goals and means to achieve them; committed, non- deviating member of society who wants to does want to risk losing these goals
 (3) Involvement – Involvement in conformist and legitimate activities such as after- school programs to move youth away from deviance in order to connect with others
 (4) Belief– Strong sense of morals and “respect for law and order” If anyone of these are weak, Hirschi argues that deviant behaviour can arise • Case Study: Social and Self Control • Let’s watch the following clip from ABC’s Once Upon a Time (ABC Television Network. (2009). “The Dark One Reveals the Truth.” Retrieved from watch?v=SEqHAj7OTq0)
 - Using the theories of self and social control, how can we explain this example? Note that more than 1 theoretical interpretation may apply Social Structural Theories: Social Disorganization • Theories include:
 1. Park and Burgess’ (1925) human ecology theory/concentric zone model
 2. Shaw and McKay’s (1942) theory of social disorganization
 3. Cohen and Felson’s (1979) routine activities theory • These theories have a social psychological approach but are used within various disciplines as well 7 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 • Focus: social disorganization/social environment (i.e., ecology, where people live) and associations within the environment as precipitators for deviance and crime 1. Park and Burgess’ (1925) Human Ecology Theory/Concentric Zone Model • A theory developed to explain land use and the ecology of the city and potential growth
 - Dubbed “concentric zone model” • Central terms:
 1. Symbiosis: How are things interrelated to each other/dependent, or mutually exist
 2. Invasion: Something coming in and causing stress such as taking away land or heightened population all at onetime
 3. Dominance: population levels and flux
 4. Succession • Zones include (centre drawing outwards): 1. CBD or “loop” in the centre with factories on the outskirts
 - Not given the name of Zone 1
 - Most individuals come into work
 - The loop is used to bring individuals from their place of home to the place of work such as a bus route 2. Zone 2: Zone of transition (greatest deviance)
 - Transitory types of housing since there is high immigration
 - Cheaper housing, individuals do not stay here for long once they find a better job or a better house, crime is highest since there is higher police presence which increases profiling 3. Zone 3: Working class homes
 - Making a decent income
 - Living outside central business district
 - Crime is less 4. Zone 4: Middle class homes
 - Further outside of the city
 - More densely populated communities with townhouses and attached condominiums
 - More organized environment which means less flux in and less crime rates 8 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 5. Zone 5: Commuter zone
 - Gated community with gates and high level of security
 - Further point out with the longest commute
 - Lowest levels of crime are 2. Shaw and Mckay’s (1942) theory of social disorganization • What happens when there is a lack of organization socially and environmentally speaking? • “Deviant behaviour results from poor community conditions”; therefore “...lack of social cohesion” • What does this mean?
 - Lack of social and informal controls lead to deviance through the development of gangs and deviant subcultures for cohesion and connection
 - Focused on criminally deviant attitudes and not subjective forms of deviance 3. Cohen and Felson’s (1979) routine activities theory • This is becoming popular in correctional and policing institutions to change building structures to decrease the likelihood of crime • Three key elements are necessary for criminal behaviour or deviance to occur:
 1. Motivated offender: they must have an interest to participate in crime and commit tot the task
 2. Suitable target: must have an achievable criminal activity to engage in since if it is not we will lose motivation or it must be worth it
 3. Absence of guardianships: lack of surveillance in terms of people, structure or technology
 - Each of these things can change our ability to engage in a deviant behaviour How can crime prevention through environmental design decrease criminal • behaviour?
 - Link: Kansas City Police. (2010). “Crime prevention through environmental design.” Retrieved from
 - Tips: Check your mail, change your habits, lighting is the most important to prevent crime, plants should be trimmed to prevent people from hiding or show a potential criminal, no loose rocks or bricks, avoid walking in non-walking areas, lock up all ladder and tools, all security devices are used properly and as often as possible, use your peephole, get a jam plate to prevent a door from being broken down and report any suspicious activity to the police especially nosy neighbours 9 Wednesday, March 22, 2017 These designs become a part of everyday architecture
 • - For example, windows on the dorms facing outwards or parking lots being right in front of the hotel entrance Group Theories of Deviance • Focus: deviance and crime, like any other behaviour, is learned 1. Sutherland’s (1939) theory of differential association • 9 propositions:
 - Learned through interaction with others often in “intimate groups”
 - The basic point is we learn deviance and crime like we learn any other activity
 - Involves socialization by happening through our intimate connections to individuals • Key concepts that occur within our social bonds and intima
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