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Lecture 7

2D06 Lecture 7 "Social Stratification".docx
2D06 Lecture 7 "Social Stratification".docx

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McMaster University
Sarah Clancy

Fox 1 Lecture 7 SOCIOL 2D06 Wednesday, October 30, 2013  Social Stratification What is Social Stratification? -refers to the ways in which individuals or groups are ranked in society, reflecting different amounts of power, status, and prestige (pg. 86-87) - gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, race and class create inequalities within society What about those 3 perspectives in sociological social psychology? -recall that social structure and personality looks at the role that institutions and organizations (which are structural) impact and influence people’s behaviors, actions, and roles - power, roles, status, and prestige - ex. as a student you have particular roles, which gives you a particular status in society and level of power -recall that group processes studies the exchange of information occurring through individuals who are members of groups - looks at power, status, justice and legitimacy in groups - in relation to social stratification, interested in how groups reproduce large-scale social stratification (pg. 87) -recall that symbolic interactionism focuses on meaning arising through interaction, interaction, and socialization -in relation to social stratification, SI is interested in how: - meanings about and surrounding different forms of social stratification (ie. gender, race, ethnicity, class, age, and sexual orientation) are given meaning and then recreated through the process of interaction (pg. 87) Social Structure based approaches to Social Stratification -two main approaches: - Kohn and Schooler (1983) - personality and social structure approach - Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment - link between social background and likelihood of achieving status attainment Social Stratification: Social Structure and Personality Kohn and Schooler (1983) -link between values and social class -role of the ‘feedback loop’ where ‘class positions influence the development of values, which in turn influences the types of jobs for which people look’ (pg. 101) - social class influences job selection and choice of job/career influences our personality and values -ex. people who are of lower SES tend to have jobs that are lower income because they have lower education and not the same opportunities as the more affluent Fox 2 Lecture 7 - this does not apply to everyone, however, because some people shine over their SES -how can jobs affect creation of values and one’s personality? (pg. 102) - 1. closeness of supervision (ie. control and independence) -ex. if you own your own law firm, you have more autonomy and don’t go on other people’s schedule but your own - 2. the routinization of work (ie. repetitiveness) -different in different jobs (ex. a factory worker doing the same thing and a lawyer doing something new every day with different cases) - 3. the substantive complexity of the work (ie. how difficult) -role of ‘intellectual flexibility’ and self-directed orientation -the more self-directed and autonomy you have, that often means they’re coming from a higher social class and will develop the characteristics associated with that (ie. higher status, better job, more education, etc) A Case Study Spade (1991) -analyzed how men and women’s occupational and social status affects their parental values and beliefs -who is more likely to value self-direction for their children? (Spade, 343) - both males and females (although females often have a lower occupational status than men) with high ‘occupational status, education, and occupational self-direction” - values instilled over generations, passing ideas to one another - looked at middle to higher class individuals Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment (Sewell, 2004) -study began in 1957 -looked at how socioeconomic status affects status attainment through the life course -“social mobility” throughout the life course - does it change to greater or lesser degrees depending on socio-economic values? - if people have more money do they move up the social ladder and vice versa when you lose money? -role of the primary group - how do those who are close to us (family, friends) affect our social mobility wrt to more dependence -if we have a family of 10, it may be more difficult to be socially mobile because a bulk of our funds will have to go towards maintaining the family Study of Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment -findings - familiar background influences meanings and interactions (learned through socialization) about life goals Fox 3 Lecture 7 - these structure our educational and occupational goals and academic potential/performance Social Networks and Social Capital -social networks involve groups of individuals and relationships among and between them - social networks can have varying levels of power and prestige -when you’re a part of a group or “clique” you’re gaining more information and establishing connections and potential for development -social networks provide a source of social capital (i.e., “support”) to people - access to social capital is dependent on the social networking arrangement - as we are interacting with people in society, we are either given or denied access to different forms of capital - as we become apart of networks, we gain more social capital ex. relationships with people can create a higher status - however, even when you’re a part of a group, you can be a person who achieves most lowest status in a group, which will disallow you access to certain things higher people in the group may have -ex. avenue to learn - discussion boards asking for notes - those who have the notes have the highest power over those asking for them -people are connected to one another in social networks by either strong or weak ties - strong tie - a group that shares all similar characteristics of power, which creates more reciprocity of sharing - weak ties - levels of inequality, which creates less reciprocity and trust -socio-demographic variables can affect access to both social networks and social capital -role of power and how it can be used to gain status - ex. pe
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