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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 2Q06 October 3.docx

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Sociology
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SOCIOL 2Q06
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dr.s

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Lecture 4 2Q06 October 3 Historical and Structural Perspectives: an Overview  Pre-Industrial Moment  Family Economy: the family was both a unit of production as well as a unit of consumption (Adams, 2001)  The labour needs determined the work roles of men and women  The work of women and children was not marginal to the economy  Contribution of every member of the family is highly valued  Her main thesis tis that the nature of production for pre-capitalist families were shaped by capitalist structures  Know what family economy is about  The survival of the family depended on every single member of the family dividing up the labour  “Household labour needs, subsistence requirements, and family relationships constituted the ‘family economy’” Tilly and Scott, 2009: 57)  As we shift into the industrial family we being to see a more rigid division of labour, and the individuals become more reliant on the marketplace. It is in the urban centers that we being to see this early rather then in the rural areas. The process of the family becoming a unit of just consumption took over 200 years.  Industrializing Period  “…Brought about a physical separation of the (private) home place and the (public) “work” place…” (Nelson: 2010: 72)  The capitalism requires the key free labour of women to be successful  More capitalist ways of production, and this brought greater division between men and women  For men the shift to industrialization brought upon extra work because they would work in the factories all day then work on the farm when the came home  19 century -small scale farming became replaced with large-scale production farms. Went from the home being a unit of production to t  Family life became separate from work  Industrial capitalism emerged in Europe in 17 century  In Canada by the 1840’s it was still primarily household production  There were two keys industrialization processes 1. Transportation  The Maritimes were the early manufacturing then after 1867 confederation, Ontario and Quebec became industrialized.  “True Women… were pious, their lives being one long act of devotion to God, husband, children, servants, the poor, humanity. Second, they were passive, without any desire to strive or achieve for them. Third, they were “pure.” Marriage was their career—spinsters were pitied and regarded as failures—and virginity and total sexual ignorance were crucial…” (Fowler, 1993: xvi, cited in Nelson, 2010: 73).  There was an assumption that when women made their husbands happy that they would be happy. Domestic roles during the industrialized period took on a great prominence and focused on making a happy household.  The cult of womanhood / the ideology of domesticity – IN TEXT  “Motherhood as we know it today is a surprisingly new institution. In most of human history, and in most parts of the world even today, adult able-bodied women had been, and still are, too valuable in the productive capacity to be spared for the exclusive care of children” Jessie Bernard, 1974, The Future of Motherhood  Throughout history, women’s work was far to valuable to be singled out for the care of children  Page 73 text  Industrialization required individuals to take on particular roles  Shift towards industrialization brought labour laws that rejected children from working, and wanted them to go to school  The increasing focus on social reform (rise of public education, keeping kids out of factory) it really focused on child and childcare  Factors which can be seen as putting mothers on a pedestal:  1. The demise of the self-contained/self-sufficient household (demise of the family economy)  2. The segregation of the home from the workplace and the increasing dependence on the market.  3. Resulting segregation of daily life into separate spheres.  4. Increasing seclusion of women and children  5. Rise of domestic ideology (Margolis, 2001).  Mainstream Sociological Theories  Structural Functional  Tend to see social institutions (family, economy, education) all working in harmony, and in this way each institution fulfills a particular function that is necessary for society to be successful  Emile Durkheim- relates that everything must be working  Change in one institution will lead to change in another that might lead to a dysfunction  In the family every individual is expected to fulfill a particular role in order for the family to work  Integration, shared values, social stability  Talcott Parsons (1955), The American Family  “. Nuclear family, consisting of parents and their still dependent children, ordinarily occupy[ing] a separate dwelling not shared with members of the family of orientation of either spouse, and that this household is in the typical case economically independent, subsisting in the first instance from the occupational earnings of the husband-father” (Parsons, 1955: 10).  Parsons: Involved a man and women with his dependent children, the family is defined as a nuclear family. They family are dependent on the wages of the husband. The family is a subsystem of a larger system  Processes of the family: Socialization of children, the maintenance of adult personalities- children grow up to be functioning adults  Husband Father– instrumental leader, brings home wages  Wife Mother—expressive leader, focuses on emotional work (from Parsons, 1955)  DICHOTOMY  Parsons work blatantly rationalized the gender inequalities of the 1950’s. Therefore, if the family wasn’t the nuclear family, then every other family structure is seen as deviant  He ignores the value of women’s work in the home  Social change is disruptive and dysfunctional  When women protested their role in the family (i.e. taking on paid work outside the home) they were seen as deviant  Dismiss violence and say it must be a dysfunction because someone in the family is not performing their roles  Marxist/ Conflict Perspective:  “…The nucleus, the first form, of which lies the family, where wife and children and slaves of the husband. This latent slavery in the family, though still is very crude, is the first property…” (Marx in The German Ideology, 1978: 159)  Social change for Marx occurs with the overthrow of the bourgeoisie  Marx points to the family as the original site of inequitable division of labour.  Marx critiques capitalism and the expectations built into capitalism  The family become dependent of the bourgeoisie for survival for the products that are essential for life since these items were not produced in the house anymore because of industrialism  The Feminist Perspective  Comes out of Marx’s reasoning of exploitation analysis  There is an awareness and focus on women’s explo
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