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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 2Q06 Oct 17.docx

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Development and Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence Lecture 5, Soc 2Q06E October 17, 2012 • Childhood: a social and historical construct • While it is situated in biology, it is also a social and historical construct. The social expectations for children and their needs, need to be seen in a certain time frame • Expectations of children are much different then what they were in the medieval periods. They were seen and treated as adults. • “until about the twelfth century [Medieval artists] did not know childhood or did not attempt to portray it” (Philippe Aries, 1962) • wasn’t a place for representations of childhood. When kids were depicted in gospel scenes (from 11 and 12 century) they were represented as mini adults • Childhood was a period of transition which was quickly passed through • “It is as if, to every period of history, there correspond A privileged age and a particular division of human life: ‘youth’ is the privileged age of the seventeenth century, childhood of the nineteenth, adolescence of the twentieth” (Ariès, 1962: 32). • Children enter in to this adult ground during the industrialization, and wasn’t until after industrialization were child labour laws introduced. And only after ww2 was adolescence introduced • A shift in how one conceptualized childhood and the idea of it • Margolis- children were not considered a separate category and there was a focus on disciplining the child • Prior to the industrial revolution, parents expected to loss some children to death • Social class positions- higher classes looked at their children differently then those of the working class • Rise of public education • Childhood is very much socially constructed • Socialization (pg 108) a lifelong process where people learn the beliefs of a group • What is deemed appropriate varies across time and social groups • 4 agents of socialization – family, school, peer group, mass media • Religion, workplace, and government can also be agents • The Family: • 1. Primary Group • characterized by very intimate relationships • 2. It exerts a primacy effect- all of those ties that happen first in our life (i.e. cultural grouping you belong to) • what happens in our family has a profound affect about what happens later in our lives • a process that beings from the moment of birth • infants go through habit training- care giviers impose schedules— being socialized into a particular pattern • an interactive process- the child itself plays a role in how the adult develops as a parent • (four major agents of socialization: the family the school, peer group, and mass media…can you think of any others ?) • “In Japan, Travelling Alone Begins at 6”, by Tolbert, K., 2000:17. Washington Post National Weekly Edition • children are expected to be much more independent at a much earlier age • in cities like Tokyo young children have to commute to school by themselves • “…where parents push their children to commute to school on their own from an early age.” • The early years of a children is very critical in how they develop into a young person • The expectations of children vary across different cultures and society • “The Nature of Gender” in Demography by Udry, J. R. 1971, 31: 561-573 • points to a number of themes that point to the different socialization process that boys and girls undergo • Female socialization: sociability, popularity and attractiveness have high knowledge of verbal and non verbal communication, the need for young girls to be perceived as pretty • Equating femininity with motherhood- as women mature there is an expectation of marriage and children • Male socialization: independence, emotional control and conquest • Self motivated and regulated • Not showing tears or sadness but showing anger • Providing for your family • These traits are unjustly placed on girls and boys • Social Class: • Linkage to Marx- relationship to means of production • Bourgeoisie vs proletariat • Land is wealth for Marx • Has a number of different dimensions to define it • Economic dimension (taken from both Marx and Weber)- the importance of ownership and investment capital – indicators of the amount of income your bringing in • Dominant realm • Political dimension (taken from Weber)- relationship between status and power • Cultural dimension (taken from Weber)- your lifestyle, social class your situated in demonstrates the types of life style you live (education) • How does income, wealth and power relate to gender, and age • Social class operationalized in three levels (upper, middle and working) • Ther
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