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Lecture 5

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McMaster University
Lina Samuel

Fox 1 Lecture 5 SOCIOL 2R03 October 3, 2013  Race & Ethnic Inequality Agenda:  Race and racialization  Internal Colonialism  Aboriginals in Canada-Native Americans (from text)  Immigrant Experiences (Hispanic immigrants from text)  Culture of Poverty and the Social Reproduction of Poverty  Middleman minorities and ethnic solidarity  Race is a social construction, not a biological fact (Sernau, 2014: 110)  -in the 19th century used to classify and identify groups  -skin pigmentation, hair type, size of brain… used to group peoples  -see the emergency of a hierarchical relationship  (Miles and Brown, 2006)  -racial categories are fluid (example from text: page 110-110)  Internal Colonialism (Sernau: 2014: 112-113)  1. control over a groups governance  2. restriction of freedom of movement  3. colonial type of labour exploitation  4. belief in group’s inferiority  Aboriginals in Canada:  Indian Act 1876  Powerful lasting effects on the lives of Native people  “a woman married to anyone other than an Indian was not entitled to status as an Indian, nor were her children…”  Patriarchal laws that destroyed matrilineality of many Native families  History of Residential Schools 1840s last school closing in 1996  Sixties Scoop 1951  African Americans  US ended slavery in 1865  Ontario (then a Colony of Upper Canada) ended slavery in 1793  History of the plantation economy and racial – caste system (there was no room to move up and/or out…) Fox 2 Lecture 5  Role of Thomas Jefferson: Knew slavery was immoral but was conflicted on course of action  In Canada:  1920s- 1940s: British Isles and NW Europe (made up 72 % of immigrants)  1945-1966: South East Europe  Mid 1960s – Present: Rise in Asian Immigrants  (Kalbach, 1987)  In US  Specific history of Hispanic American  Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans speak directly of American imperialist expansion (Puerto Ricans not considered an immigrant group)  Culture of Poverty (Harman, 2005: 252)  Poor families develop fatalistic values and attitudes  Self-fulfilling prophecy, poverty causes more poverty  Deferred gratification  Cultural traits rooted in overall structure  Based on the works of Oscar Lewis 1961, 1968  (Sernau, 2014: 130)  Social Reproduction of Poverty (Harman, 2005: 252-256)  Culture of Poverty puts the blame on the poor  Ignores or minimizes the structural basis of poverty  Ignores the history of many groups  Structural Causes of Poverty  Loss of manufacturing jobs  Expansion of service work  Increase in Precarious work  Increase in low-paying jobs  Increase in Unemployment and underemployment  Gunnar Myrdal (1944):  great discrepancy/disconnect between the country’s ideals of freedom and equality and the reality that it was built on racial oppression and inequality (cited in Sernau, 2014: 132)  Middleman Minorities and Ethnic Solidarities ( Sernau, 2014: 126-127)  Immigrant America: A Portait (Alejandro Portes and Ruben Rumbaut, 1990) Fox 3 Lecture 5  Immigrants coming in select skills and credentials move into the primary labour market of professional and technical employment  Immigrants coming into the USA (and Canada), who have limited skills, tend to be found in the secondary labour market which is characterized by: Non-standard employment relations  Internal Colonial--Nations exploitation of its own minority groups (Blauner, 1972) Conclusion  Know that “race” is a social construction  Understand what is meant by internal co
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