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Sociology (2,104)
SOCIOL 2S06 (332)
David Young (323)
Lecture 4

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David Young

Factods contributing to the end of capitalism Growing urbanization: early rise closely tied property less serfs went to cities to seek work and found work that started emerging in factories in Europe  This brought a growing concentration of urban labourers, living in the same neighbourhoods/area as the cities and in the same horrible living conditions  Circumstances under which emerging proletariat were crucial to the development of working class consciousness Large-scale production  Concentration of many people working in close proximity to each other with in factories is also going to contribute to working class consciousness  Workers working beside each other on assembly line  all are in the same boat Economic crisis  make working class to overthrow the system  Thrown off workers Class polarization  According to marx there will be increasing class polarization  There are the bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie or proletariat  Marx thought some members of the PB would rise to B and some of the PB would sink down to the proletariat  By in large, the middle class PB is going to disappear  This is lead to the polarization of classes  Working class counsciousness Class homogenization o Significant differences in skills in the working class as capitalism emerged o Due to the fact that everyone did different things ie. Potters, blacksmiths, smerfs o Techonological advnaces and the mechanization of production in these factories o These factors lead to the reduction of skills differences o Sem-skilled workers who operate machines o Their skills are becoming the same  Deepening immiseration o Economic empoverishment experienced by the working class which is established due to the growing gap between the material well being and living standards of capitalist and workers The rolde of working class in the end of capitalism  Marx thought there would be a shift involving the working class  The working class would shift from being a class in itself to be being a class for itself  Class in itself  Class in itself means that the proletariat share a common class position o an objective condition o share a common class position o exclusion from the owners of means of production  class for itself is a subjective condition  means that the proletariat have awareness of their common class position  also have a belief in the possibility of change  have developed a working class consciousness o lead them to organize and transform the society through a revolution  believe they can change society now Beyond capitalism  marx never told us how the relovution would occus but did give us few hints about how society would look after the revolution by the proletariat  he said that there will be two stages in the further development of society o 1 socialism o 2 communisn Socialism  Social formation in which the means of production are owned and regulated by the state o Certain aspects of capitalism will remain o Particularly the state remains under socialism o The state is needed to try to implement all the changes that are eventually going to mean that there is no state o We need to make a destinction between the 1 capitalist state and the 2 socialist state o Capitalist will rep the interest of the cap class o Socialist state is not simply will truly represent the interest of all the people  There will the dictatorship of the proletariat  This will operate through the state  Proletariat overthrew the cap system and are now in control of the state  Now they will make policies for all people  These policies will include the abolition of private property (property holdings)  No more ownership of private property)  There will also be the centralization of banking in a government bank  There be no private companies are bank  There would be state ownership of factories and production  There would be no more proft generated by the creation of surplus value  No more caps exploiting workers trying to extract value from what they do  Instead the wealth generated in production would be distributed to all workers after a common fund had been set aside to provide education, health facilities, social services and so on  The wealth being generated is being returned to the workers, and used for all the people and provide services to people  Everyone is benefiting from that and not just capitalists Communism  is a social formation In which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to ability and means, this is different than the present day communist countries o The state will disappear, and would be replaced by decentralized non authoritarian system of administration or the society by all people o Its decentralized meaning there is equality o Non-authoritarian o It involves all the people o This system of admin is going to be fundamentally democratic o Unfortunately marx didn’t say a lot about how this is going to work and so we don’t know a lot about it o Under communisn there will be great equality and fairness than in any previous society o Marx wrote (famous quotation)  ‘from each according to his ability, to each according to his means’  1 part means  People will put into society what they can  2 part means  people will get out of society what they mean Emile Durkheim A biological sketch of Durkheim Early Years  Born
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