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Lecture 5

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David Young

Page 1 of 6 Sociology 2S06E Professor Young October 4 , 2012 The division of labour Mechanical solidarity what is mechanical solidarity  Exists in early societies  This exists because it operates very much like a machine, very much in an automatic fashion characteristics of mechanical solidarity  In the early societies there was a small population and a low division of labour  People do the same kind of work  Collective conscience  Example job  hunting for food, building shelter, teaching children  This makes people self-sufficient, they don’t really need other people  They can hunt their own food, teach their own children  Sum it up by saying people are similar and engage in common activities  Collective conscience  totality of common beliefs and feelings among the members of a society o This emerges over time o This is based on shared religious beliefs which emerge in society, social glue which binds together what would otherwise be self-sufficient people o This binds people together o Social solidarity is based on this  The basis of formal laws  formals laws developed out of the collective conscience o Collective conscience is based on religious beliefs, and out of that their laws emerges o These religious beliefs take on a more organized form as law o There is a connection between the formal laws and religious beliefs o Crucial to social order Organic solidarity what is organic solidarity  Form of solidarity that exists in modern societies Page 2 of 6  Durkheim thought that modern societies are analogous to biological organisms  Biological organisms have different organs and these diff organs have to fulfill certain functions  One part of the body is heart which pumps the blood  The lungs allows the organism to breath  Durkheim said similar about modern societies  Just like diff organs, modern societies are made up of different part (institutions and organizations)  These different parts must fulfill certain functions  If these stop fulfilling functions the organism is going to die  Mechanical solidarity gives way historically to organic solidarity  Expanding division of labour Characteristics of organic solidarity  Changes in the divisions of labour  there is a large population and a high division of labour o People do different kinds of work o People are no longer doing the same kind of work o We have grocers, construction workers, teachers o In these types of societies people are no longer self-sufficient o People need other people to perform tasks which are essential to their survival o In organic solidarity people are dissimilar and engage in specialized activities  Changes in collective conscience  people are not the same and the collective conscience will not be the entire society together as people are so dissimilar o The collective conscience remains in modern societies but the common beliefs and feelings among the members of that member of societies become very general o People have different religious beliefs which do not collectively bind people together o The bigger issue is the secularization of society  declining of religious beliefs, people have abandoned religious beliefs o Religious beliefs will not be the binding glue in society  The new basis of formal  now people are bound together by the division of labour o We have highly specialized individuals doing their jobs o They depend on others through the division of labour o They must co-operate and depend on one another for survival o Social solidarity is based on the division of labour as we need each other Page 3 of 6  The new basis for formal law  Durkheim also saw changes in formal laws o Formals laws reflected the religious beliefs o In modern societies formal laws reinforce rights and responsibilities that people have in a complex division of labour o The labour legislation sets out the rights and responsibilities for employers and employees Forms of the division of labour Normal division of labour  According to Durkheim divisions of labour is normal if genuine morality guides interaction among people and there is justice in the attainment of positions within society  Morality  Divisions of labour involves morality if individuals fulfill their obligations and contributions both to other individuals and to the collectivity as a whole o People have to essentially do the right thing, meet obligations, not to just people around them but the society as a whole  Justice  Justice is when each person has an equal opportunity to take on that position most appropriate to his or her capacities and interests  What happens when we don’t have morality or justice, when there is violation of these things in division of labour  then we have an abnormal division of labour  If there is Insufficient morality (amorality) that produces anomic division of labour  If there is insufficient justice (immorality) that produces a force division of labour  These are types of abnormal labour the anomic division of labour  Anomy is the state of normlessness  There are norms regarding our rights and responsibilities in the division of labour  When these norms are not upheld, we can have an anomic division of labour  When these norms regarding our rights are responsibilities are not respected, the division of labour is not producing solidarity, but rather producing conflicts, struggles and lawlessness  If there is anomy conflict arises  Ex. Workers may go on strike against capitalists as they believe that ca
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