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David Young

January 31st  Geographical clustering of phorfor economic and social exchanges  Some theoriest argue that these econ activity is found in three core block – eu, asia- pacific, Americas  There is a tendency toward economic and financial interdependence within each of these three zones  This regionalization/interconnectedness occurs in 3 ways – organization, forums and agreements that have emerged o Organization – we have the eu union (EU)  Theorist argue this is an example of econ interdependence o Forums – asia pacific economic cooperation (APEC) o Agreements – north American free trade agreement (NAFTA) Political Globalization A What is political globalization?  Political globalization involves transferring some of the power and decision making of various countries to other entities  Destinction is made between two concept of nation state and the state o Nation state is a country o State is something else  each nation state is going to have a state to admin its affairs  states exist within the country b organization and political globalization  associated with certain poli org  state is made up of various institutions and organizations  however since 1940 there has been the emergence of of number of organization that exist above that political entity (nation state) o we distinguish between two type sof these states  supranational organizations o have the authorities to make laws and regulation that can be imposed on member countries o key example is the European union o it is the sort of state that exists above the state in various eu countries o not all countries are part of eu like Britain france and Germany  they are nation states and have states within them o eu exists above all these nation states – sets rules that must be fallowed in all member countries  international organization o dependant upon the cooperation of member countries to carry out the operations or policies o so they don’t impose laws and regulations o there needs to be cooperation amongst the countries o some of these inter org have supranational elements  like UN  some degree they have supranational leements like they have a security councils and can issue directives and orders that are binding on countries and force countries to do certain things o other examples of international organizations include group of 20 (G20)  international monetary fund (IMF)  world trade organization (WTO)  World Bank C theories of political globalization  The diminishing power of nation states o Some think this power is diminished under poli global o The ides here is that more and more decisions are being made not by countries, but by supranational and international organizations o This suggest Homogenetty (increasing sameness in poli conditions around the wrld) o Nation sates are adopting same policies and respecting the same laws that are set by these organizations  Under the authorit y of these organizations they are doing the same thing o In order to understand this idea of diminishing power we need to considier to specific concepts and issues  We need to understand whats undermining  (1) state autonomy – refers to capacity of nation states to chose their own political, economic and social policies  Countries do not have the authority to set their own economic policies  These policies are to some degree determined by the rulings of organization  Consider the example of world trade organization (WTO) – was established in 1990 and members country respect the free trade agreement  If there is a conflict over trade issues between two member countries then the WTO will decide the case  The losing countires need to adjust their policies as imposed by the wto  (2) state sovereignty – right of nation sate to rule over their citizens  Some say this have been undermined by poli globalization  Consider the example of EU (state above state) – undermined the soveirenty of its member countries by subjecting their citizens to its laws and regulations  Three members of eu are Britain france and Germany  They have state to minister affairs as well  The citizens are expected to follow and respect the laws of their own countries as admin by their state  But they are also expected to respect the laws of eu (state above the state)  The argument is there is heterogenetty (continueung difference in poli conditions around the world) – hence nation states have retained their sovierenty and autonomy in many respect  Nation-states o Still heva great deal of autonomy o Still have a great deal of soverenty – they still rule over their citizens through laws (there may be eu laws but the nation states also have their own laws which are set in palce for the citizens to follow)
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