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2S06 Lecture 1.docx

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David Young

Fox 1 Lecture 1 SOCIOL 2S06 Monday Sept 09, 2013  The Development of French Sociology A) The Ideas of Claude Henri de Saint-Simon:  French aristocrat  Writings made contribution to conservative theory and classical theory within sociology  Conservative thinker  Wanted to preserve society as it was (maintain social order), but saw the need for social change  Built upon the enlightenment by arguing that social phenomena need to be examined with empiricism and science B) The Ideas of Auguste Comte:  Presents ideas in a more systematic way 1) Developed social physics = sociology (he was the first person to use the term sociology)  Sociology is the science of society  Natural sciences  Interested in social status (social structure) and social dynamics (social change)  He though studying social dynamics was a more important task than studying social status 2) The Law of 3 Stages:  The social world has gone into 3 evolutionary and intellectual stages 1) Theoretical Stage  Existed prior to 1300  Focused on understanding the world through religion 2) Metaphysical Stage  Existed apx. 1300-1800  Philosophical ideas rather than religion 3) Positive Stage  Began in 1800  Science Fox 2 Lecture 1  Called positive because optimistic about the use of science in understanding society  “Positivism” = refers to a system of thought which recognizes only that which can be scientifically verified or logically proved 3) Social Order & Disorder  Social disorder can emerge because some people are still trying to understand the world through religion and philosophy rather than science  Social disorder can be eliminated or reduced when we realize science is understood through the world  Intellectual disorder was the cause of social disorder C) The Ideas of Emile Durkheim:  Work influenced by the Enlightenment, the Conservative Reaction to the Enlightenment and the Ideas of Comte 1) Influence of the Enlightenment & Comte  Science = sociology = structural sciences = developed a methodology = Book: “The Rules of Sociological Method”  Sociologists should identify patterns or regularities in society that are reflected in statistics  Focused on suicide statistics  Sociologists should be like natural scientists by collecting “objective” data and by using it to analyze cause and effect 2) Influence of the Conservative Reaction & Comte  Focused on understanding social order  Much like Comte, he argued that social disorder co
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