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SOCIOL 2S06 (332)
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Lecture 4

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 2S06
Professor
David Young
Semester
Fall

Description
Fox 1 Lecture 4 SOCIOL 2S06 Thursday September 19, 2013 Cont. D) Marx’s Recognition of “Middle Classes” Under Capitalism 1) The Petty Bourgeoisie 2) Other “Middle classes” 3) The Disappearance of “Middle Classes” The Bourgeoisie, The petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat = all connected  Marx’s Analysis of Exploitation & Alienation: A) The Nature of Productive work: o Good o The human ability to create things is satisfying and rewarding o It allows us to be social and work with others and reflect as Marx saw as our communal nature o It has also turned into something bad because under the capitalist mode of production, it involves 2 negative characteristics: exploitation & alienation of workers B) Exploitation: o Refers to a process through which the property class appropriates the labour effort of the property less class for its own material advantage 1) The Commodity (basic unit of capitalist production) & its prospects: every commodity has 2 properties and has use value and exchange value o Use value refers to the value of a commodity to satisfy a human want (Example=automobile->want is transportation) o Exchange value refers to the value of a commodity in the marketplace Example=automobile->has an exchange value in the market and takes form of a price and the price of that commodity can be affected by supply and demand in the capitalist marketplace) o Exploitation varies with the mode of production 2) Exploitation & the Mode of Production: i) Slavery & Feudalism: Under slavery and feudalism, exploitation exists due to the creation of surplus Fox 2 Lecture 4 o Slaves and serfs produce a lot and what they produce is appropriated by their masters or lords o Only be given the bare minimum to survive o The rest is surplus for the masters and the lords ii) Capitalism: o Exists due to the creation of surplus to the difference between what it costs to produce a commodity and the exchange value of that commodity o Production of automobile requires raw materials and the parts of the automobile will be needed but most importantly, labour will be needed o Labour and raw material combine a commodity use-value and has considerable exchange value (command a good price on the capitalist market) o The difference between what it costs between raw materials and labour and the price of that automobile will be the source of profit for capitalists = surplus value o Workers are exploited here (don’t enjoy the benefits, mi
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