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David Young (323)
Lecture 7

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David Young

Fox 1 Lecture 7 SOCIOL 2S06 Monday September 30, 2013 Durkheim Continued Personal Tragedy  Son enlisted in the army and was killed in the war in 1916; had a devastating effect on Durkheim Failing Health and Death  Tried to keep busy after death of his son but was in failing health  In 1916 he suffered a stroke  Died in 1917 at the age of 59 ST DURKHEIM AND 21 CENTURY SOCIETY  The Division of Labor o An important concept for Durkheim and is still a very important concept o We can see the division of labor in the social institutions around us o Organizations: Part-time or full-time, each job has a hierarchy o Family: Division of labor between parents and siblings  The Methodology of Sociology o Laid the foundation for sociology as a rigorous social science that links theoretical ideas and empirical observations Social Facts What are social facts?  External and collective ways in which society shapes, structures, and constrains our behavior  Example: Institutions such as the economy and politics o They have a constraining influence on social behavior  Beliefs, practices, norms o All of which we learn in a social context and have a constraining influence on what we do Statistical Facts  Birth rates, unemployment rates  These are also social facts, but social facts are much broader  These have constraining influences because they shape social policies and also shape individual decisions  Example: Unemployment rates can shape social policies because the government looks at the unemployment rate and does something to lower it o Can also shape individual decisions. People look at the low unemployment rate and think that this might not be the best time to look for a job, and vice versa STUDYING SOCIAL FACTS Studying Empirically  “Empirical” refers to what can be observed through our senses; what we can see, hear, taste, smell, touch  Example: Religion is a social fact because it is an institution that shapes behavior o Religiosity is also a social fact because religiosity (how religious a person is) is going to influence their behavior  We cannot directly see or observe religiosity o We can develop empirical (observable) indicators  We can measure these indicators o An empirical indicator or religiosity is frequency of attendance at religious services  This is empirical, this can be observed and measured  Engage in conceptualization o Develop a precise definition of a particular social phenomena  Engage in operationalization Studying Objectively  By using various indicators we can observe social facts that do not involve our personal beliefs  If we are studying religiosi
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