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2S06 Lecture 32.docx

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McMaster University
David Young

Fox 1 Lecture 32 SOCIOL 2S06 Thursday February 6, 2014  The Theoretical Ideas of Richard Emerson cont. A) Laying the foundation for exchange theory: • Relations within a network • Emerson what is important is not the connection between actors but rather the connection between exchange relations B) ? • Exchange network A-B-C has two exchange relations A-B and B-C • In a network the exchange in one relation affects the exchange in another relation in a network the exchange in one relation affects the exchange in another relation • e.g. The exchange relation A-B affects the exchange relation B-C • The connections between exchange relation can be positive or negative of how an exchange network • Three actors: Abe, Bill & Cathy • It is not an exchange network of Abe exchanges information with Bill and Bill exchanges services with Cathy • It is not a chain because AB does not effect BC • It is two separate exchanges • If Abe gives bill information which then helps Bill provide services for Cathy then we have an exchange network with positive connection • If Abe tell bill some gossip about Cathy and that then makes it difficult for bill to work with Cathy then it is a negative relation c) Power and dependence in relation with a network: • According to Emerson the power of one actor in an exchange relation is associated with the dependence of the actor • There is balance in the exchange relation between A and B when the dependence of A and B is equal to the dependence of B on A • However when there is an imbalance in the dependencies the actor with less dependence has an advantage in terms of power • This power can be used to acquire more rewards in the exchange relation Fox 2 Lecture 32 • e.g. Abe has power over bill if Abe has more access to information that bill and bill is dependent on Abe’s greater access information • Abe can then use bill dependence on him to request or demand certain rewards for the information D) Exchange network theory an higher level of analysis 1) Key issues: • e.g. Entire societies (such as countries are actors. But their human agents are government leaders (such as presidents, prime ministers or other representatives of countries and the interests of countries) • As at the micro level, these actor comprise an exchange network made up of exchange relation
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