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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Historical Perspectives Part 2.docx

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Sandra Colavecchia

1 th Sociology 2U06: Sociology of the Family Oct. 13 2011 Lecture 10: Growth of Nuclear Family – Ch 3 Baker  Industrialization, urbanization, modernization  Colonization & colonialization  Immigration European Colonization  French/English immigrants o Significant feuds, alliances formed between indigenous people o Nuclear family very different o Economic survival (marriage) – foreign homeless women sent to New France and other parts of Canada to have them married and start families Indigenous Tribes  Huron/Wyandotte o Lived in extended families, organized by clan membership (descendent matrilineal, traced thru female blood line) o Communal housing (longhouses) o Senior women, unmarried sons and daughters, and married daughters, husband, and children o Men’s role was hunting, trading, and war o Women’s role was agriculture (food production/food trade) and childcare/household duties o Each partner had right to terminate relationship / shared sexual freedom, divorce seldom (so many relatives, able to share household duties), women typically gained more respect by community than foreigners from Europe  Iroquois o Similar to Huron, longhouses/matrilineal o Homes were under authority of elder women, marriages typically arranged by mothers o Women had strong position in politics, religion, and domestic life (agriculture, food production, food/seed storage), able to influence council meetings/household events  Ojibway/Ojibwe o Different tribe; more migratory (hunter/gatherers) o Lived in tents o Suited for family type of nuclear family “idea of family” for Europeans o Viewed marriage as essential for economic survival 2 o Marriage sometimes used to get people to take care of themselves o Married couples would have their own living space away from parents o Women in charge of cooking, childcare, weaving, harvesting rice and maple sap o Men in charge of hunters, worriers, and shaman  Messengers of spiritual world o Men weren’t shown how to do female tasks Consequences of Colonization  Very little land offered for reserves  Change occurred for gender roles (more men than women)  Men that were raised to be hunter/gatherers now pushed onto small amount of land and unable to use skills  Because of urbanization and environment degregation, unable to do much hunting  Women’s focus still on household duties such as food prep and childcare  European Law focused more on patrilineal linkage than matrilineal o Forced to take ethnicity of married person (European)  Residential schools o Forced to speak eng/fre and lost much of their culture Immigration  French/English coming to Canada  Caucasion, families, children coming on their own, mothers and children  Significantly large inc in immigration from 1900-1912 o “freedom”, with families, neighbours, looking to achieve better life  Significant dip in 1932-1945 due to war  Early 1900s total immigrant is much higher, as years progress, immigrant women are now higher than total immigrants (1911-2006)  Head Tax o 15,000 chinese immigrants came to Canada and were employed by Railway o once railway completed, gov’nt restricted
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