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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 Historical Perspectives: Families and Industrialization.docx

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Sandra Colavecchia

1 Sociology 2U06: Sociology of the Family Oct. 20th 2011 Lecture 11: Historical Perspectives: Families and Industrialization Readings:  Fox Chapter 7: Dynamics of Kin in an Industrial Community by Hareven o Kin Networks among French Canadians who migrated to Manchester, New Hampshire  Fox Chapter 8: Domesticity by Cott o Describes the cult of domesticity that emerged with industrialization  Fox Chapter 9: Putting Mothers on the Pedestal by Margolis o Outlines the new ideas about mothering and childrearing that developed with industrialization  Research by Bettina Bradbury o Study of working class life in 19th C Montreal based on archival records Changes in Families and Economy during 19th C:  Family wage economics o If necessary, all the members of the family worked for wages o No longer a unit of production o Now a unit of shared consumption  Families reliant on wages, but capitalism also reliant on families o Late 18th C, early 19th C - Industrialization emerges  First in England, people losing their land & their means of production  Need to move to more Urban Centres to work for wages  Quickly developed in other countries as well  Emergence of two classes: working and capitalist classes  Losing control over work and working conditions, which are now determined by capitalists- the owners of capital  World of work becomes hazardous, no regulations over working conditions/hours, low pay Fox Chapter 7: Dynamics of Kin in an Industrial Community by Hareven  Capitalists reliant on kin networks to recruit and train workers  Chain migration o One member of family moves to N.H. to work in the textile mill o once established in Manchester, he sends for another family member o process continues until the entire family relocates from Quebec to Manchester o family relations crucial, as they would provide a place for the new family member to live temporarily 2 o could vouch for their kin, go to the foreman and say my cousin is a good worker o employers really like this approach as it works in their own interest  family members usually work alongside one another in same department - helped in training of new employees  if family member is training you, they have a vested interest in seeing you succeed - train you very well  don't have to spend money recruiting employees or providing new employees with a place to say  don't have to spend money training either, as they have employees doing that  important study as shows us how capitalists are really dependent on family relations Separate spheres, particularly for more affluent classes  private sphere of home vs. public sphere of work o women in private, men in public  women domestic, economically dependent on their husbands o manliness increasingly defined by his ability as a breadwinner o working class also influenced by these ideas, but given the reality of their daily struggles it was really hard for them to adhere to these vales of appropriate roles of men and women in soc Research by Bettina Bradbury  Study of working class life in 19th C Montreal based on archival records o important for highlighting the connections we see between the reality of the industrial workplace and family life  family wage economics were flexible o families can rely on the wages of their kids in adolescence for survival  children living at home longer o in best interest of parents o children live with their parents for a longer period of time than pre-industrial o continue to live with parents after school, contribute to family economy by giving their wages to their parents  capitalists determined wages, so the only thing a family could control were the number of wage earners o number of kids you had working had a huge impact on the economics of the family o more kids of working age = more comfortable o when kids are too young to work, the family is in dire situation, but as they age and become old enough to work, the economic situation improves greatly  examined how families made decisions about WHO in the fam would be sent out to do wage work o gender diffs? 3  found that a number of factors resulted in very different life and work experiences for males vs. females  what was really important was the sexual division of labour in the home  domestic work was really tim
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