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GEO 2RC3.docx

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McMaster University
Cyril Levitt

Elisa Bozzelli th Tuesday, January 6 , 2014 1. What is geography? 2. What is regional geography? 3. what are the essential features of Canada’s regional geography? What does it mean to be Canadian or live in Canada The Nature of Geography  Geo – earth  graphie – write  2 sub disciplines physical and human  3 main themes humans and the land (landscape) regional studies (region) spatial analysis (location) “What is where, why there and why should we care” (Gritzner 2002) - Geography = a spatial science - spatial patterns – how are things arranged in space? - spatial processes – why are they arranged this way? - spatial meaning – what is the significance of these patterns/processes? Regional geography  defining region = an area of the earth’s surface that has distinctive characteristics (Bone 2014, 4) - a part of the earth’s surface featuring internal homogeneity and, at the same time, is relatively distinct from surrounding areas according to certain criteria -How would you divide Canada into regions? - geography helps us to understand our world - what criteria should we use to define Canada’s regions? - Canada consists of sex regions. Each differs by location, physical geography, resources, and historical development (Bone 2014, 3) - Bone uses political boundaries to divide Canada into regions Regions - On what basis do regions differ? types of regions: physical, climatic, economic, cultural, etc. - What is the significance of this regional variation? cultural landscapes and livelihoods vary from region to region (living in RegionAis not the same as living in Region B) - given its size and diversity, Canada can be viewed as a “mosaic of regional landscapes” Important concepts - sense of place: pg. 4,8-10 - regionalism: 4-5 - fault line: 10-16 - core/periphery model: 17-19 - Why are these concepts important to understanding Canada’s regional geography? Canada’s Geography - 3 essential characteristics of Canada’s geography - size, diversity, northerness (nordicity) - What kind of a place is Canada? What countries are similar? Part II: Physical Environment Canada’s Physiographic Regions th Thursday, January 9 , 2014 Purpose 1. To describe Canada’s physical geography 2. To consider the relationship between Canada’s physical and human geographies 3. To examine the nature of environmental issues in Canada Questions? 1. Where is Niagara Falls? 2. Where was Niagara Falls 10,000 years ago? - Geographies are constantly changing (human and physical) Questions 1. Where is Niagara Falls? 2. Where was Niagara Falls 10,000 years go? 3. Why is the second questions above necessary? 1. Geographies are constantly changing, often times the change is very dramatic Niagara Falls- Then and Now - Since the end of the last IceAge (12,000 years ago), Niagara Falls has ‘retreated’about 8km up the Niagara River - Since Father Louis Hennepin saw the falls in 1678, retreat= 300m - Explanation for ‘retreat’/ recession… geologic composition of Niagara Escarpment The Physical Environment “Why is Canada’s physical geography so essential to and understanding of its regional geography?” (Bone, 2014, 29) Physical landscapes differ in terms of: - landforms* - geology* - climate* - vegetation - soils - hydrology Definitions Physiographic region: an area with distinct surface landform features (geomorphology) and underlying rock structure (geology); Fig. 2.1 pg. 33 Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the process(es) of their genesis (Greek words: geo- earth; and morpho- form). How they evolve. Geology 101 Three basic rock types: 1. Igneous- rocks formed when minerals crystallize during the cooling of molten liquids (Ex: granite (origin= heat) 2. Sedimentary- rocks formed through the layering of mineral particles (Ex: limestone (deposition) Example= Niagara Escarpment 3. Metamorphic- existing rocks are altered through heat/pressure (Ex: shale- transformed into slate because of heat/pressure applied to it) Landform Processes 1. Erosional processes: water, ice, wind 2. Depositional processes: water, ice, wind Challenges imaging/understanding the ability of these processes to alter the physical landscape (force & time) Fig. 2.2- Wisconsin Ice Sheet – 18- 20,000 years ago, covered with ice meters thick, covered Canada, Northern Europe, etc. - 4.5 billion years ago- origin of earth Canada’s physiographic Regions - Geological evolution of NorthAmerica featured 3 major developments: 1. Formation of the Shield - early Pre-Cambrian era - 600 million to 3.5 billion years ago - metamorphic and igneous rocks - ‘core’of NorthAmerica 2. Formation of Mountains i)Appalachian Uplands/Highlands- eastern North America; Paleozoic era ii)Arctic Uplands- north; Paleozoic era iii) Western Cordillera- west coast; Cenozoic era - triangle of mountains surrounding the core (These periods of ‘orogenesis’between 250 and 600 million years ago) 3. Epeiric seas - shallow, sub-tropical seas covering interior of North America during Ordovician and Silurian periods - deposition of sediments- Interior Plains, Hudson Bay Lowlands, & Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Lowlands *Fig. 2.1 explains this entire lecture Map of Canada Canadian Shield - See pg. 35-36 - Underlies more than half of Canada - Hard, crystalline rocks (metamorphic), mostly granite - Rocks of western Slave Province, NWT, dated to 4.06 billion years ago - Imagine/ identity of Canada- prototypical Canadian landscape Western Cordillera - See pg. 36-38 - Cordillera= in Spanish means mountain range - Pacific Ocean- ‘Ring of Fire’(plate tectonics) - 16% of Canada’s landmass - Two parallel systems of mountains 1. Rocky Mountains 2. Coast Range Mountains - Separated by Intermontane Plateau Elisa Bozzelli Friday, January 10 , 2014 The Niagara Escarpment The Niagara Escarpment Dominant physiographic (landform) feature in Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands Designated as a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve in 1990 (12 in Canada) First large scale environment land use plan in Canada (The Niagara Escarpment Plan – 1985; Revised 1994) Formation Two stages of formation 1) Deposition of sediments by Epeiric Seas during Ordovician and Silurian periods (425-400 million years ago); oldest sediments eroded from Taconic mountains; seas re-appear several times up to end of Paleozoic period (245 million years ago) 2) Erosion of eastern NorthAmerican before Pleistocene ice ages Geologic Structure 1) Upper layers comprised of hard, erosion resistant rocks (example: dolomite, limestone) 2) Lower layers comprised of softer rocks (less resistant to erosion (example: sandstone, shale) Geologic structure (above) is reason for escarpment retaining its steep face through process known as “sapping” – example: the undercutting of softer rocks which are overlain by harder rocks (see diagram) Laying of soft and hard rocks  sapping/undercutting Elisa Bozzelli th Tuesday, January 14 , 2014 The Niagara Escarpment o Physiographic Features 1. Misfit stream a river or stream that is too small to have eroded the valley in which it flows (the erosion was the result of larger volumes of water which were present at an earlier time), Ex: most of gorges in escarpment were eroded by glacial melt water at the end of the last ice age. 2. Karst landscapes landforms created through the solution of limestone by water, Ex: Eramosa Karst - Characteristic landforms- caves, sinkholes, underground streams, etc. 3. Meromictic lake a lake with a very small surface area relative to its depth, Ex: Crawford Lake (north of Burlington); formed 15, 000 years ago by solution of limestone by glacial melt water; depth= 30m; area= 3.3 ha Summary - Influence of escarpment on human geography (environmental determinism) - Influence of human activity on escarpment - Over time, human influence generally more dominant than physical influence - Issues: resource use; development; environment Part II: The Physical Environment 2. The Legacy of IceAges Purpose – to examine the influence of glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch on Canada’s physical landscape - See Bone, Ch. 2 esp. pg. 35-37 and Vignettes 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 The Pleistocene Epoch - Began nearly 2.6 million years ago; ended 12, 000 years ago Elisa Bozzelli - Several advances (glacial periods) and retreats (interglacial periods) of continental ice sheets in northern hemisphere beginning one million years BP up to 10,000 years BP - Holocene Epoch- the current period on the geologic time scale; began 10,000 years ago - Most recent glacial period known as the Wisconsin IceAge which began 67,000 years ago and ended 12,500 years ago - Maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice Sheet reached 18-25,000 years ago (Fig. 2.2) Previous Ice Age:  Illinoian  Kansan  Nebraskan - Scientific knowledge regarding ice ages is quite recent- early theories proposed by LouisAgassiz and Charles Lyell between 1830 and 1860 - Darwin’s ‘Origins of Species’published in 1859 - Theories regarding the causes of Ice ages focus on the factors which cause variation in the amount and distribution of sunlight (solar energy) reaching the Earth’s surface - In each case, these factors affect the Earth’s orbit, which, in turn affects incoming solar radiation - Note: these are natural factors (not human- induced) Three Cycles of the Earth’s orbit: 1. Precession - Earth’s orbit around the sun changes from more elliptical to less elliptical (more oval) -Affects the timing of the seasons - Cycle lasts 19,000 to 23,000 years Elisa Bozzelli 2. Tilt - The earth rotates on a tilted axis; the angle of tilt varies slightly above/below 23 degrees - Cycle lasts approximately 41,000 years 3. Eccentricity - The shape of the Earth’s rotation on its axis varies from more circular to more elliptical, i.e., the axis of rotation ‘wobbles’ - Cycle lasts approx. 100. 000 years The Pleistocene Epoch - Maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice Sheet: See Fig. 2.2 - Reach 18- 25, 000 years ago - Extended intoAmerican mid-west south of Great Lakes - Ice depth- 3,200 m (centre of ice sheet; 1, 600 m at southern edge) - Ice melted out of South Ontario 15- 10,000 years ago - Note: advance of ice (during a glacial period) associated with cooler temperatures and an increase in the volume of snow/ice; retreat of ice (during an interglacial period) associated with warmer temperatures and a decrease in the volume of snow and ice) Glacial Landforms - Glacial landforms resulting from various processes: 1. Erosion by ice 2. Deposition by ice 3. Erosion by melt water 4. Deposition by melt water (and/or combinations of these processes) Elisa Bozzelli th Thursday, January 16 , 2014 Elisa Bozzelli Glacial Drift: Material or debris (including clay, rocks, sand, silt, gravel) deposited in situ (in the site) by melting glacial ice Materials may be sorted/stratified by glacial meltwater or they can be a heterogeneous mixture deposited by ice without water transport Moraines: Ridges of mounds of glacial material deposited at or close to the ice margin Often associated with very irregular or uneven topography (hence the term “knob and kettle topography”) EX: Oak Ridges Moraine Stretches around lake Ontario Several types  terminal, recessional, interlobate moraines Eskers: Sinuous ridges of gravel, sand, and cobbles deposited by meltwater streams flowing in a tunnel inside a glacier Scale: up to 50m in height; 150m in width; length ranges from a few hundred meters up to several hundred kilometers Drumlins: Streamlined hills shaped like the inverted bowel of a spoon 5-50 m in height; up to 3km long long axis – parallel to direction of ice movement usually many in an area – hence the term “basket of eggs topography” Elisa Bozzelli Example: Guelph, Westover, Caledonia, Peterborough Erratics: Large rocks deposited by retreating glacial ice Rocks that are geographically and geologically foreign to their present location Sometimes referred to as “haystack boulders” Largest erratic in s. Ontario = Bleasdell Boulder (3km north of Trenton); 8m high; 33,000 tons Glacial Landforms – Hamilton and Vicinity Westover drumlin field Waterdown and Vinemount moraines Iroquois bar (shoreline of post-glacial Lake Iroquois) Gorges in Niagara Escarpment formed by erosion associated with glacial meltwater (misfit streams) The town of Hamilton 1842 = Hamilton didn’t become a city until 1846 Part II The Physical Environment 3. Climate Regions of Canada Climate Regions of Canada Weather: short term (day to day), location-specific, temperature and precipitation conditions (the weather in Hamilton today…) Elisa Bozzelli Climate: long term (seasonal/annual) temperature and precipitation conditions at the regional or continental scale (the climate of southern Ontario in winter) Hamilton’s weather – January 15, 2013 High temp. -2 degrees Celsius Low temp. -5 Conditions: partly cloudy Normal high temp. -0.5 Normal low temp. -9.3 Record high temp. 15.6 (1995) Record low temp. -22.8 (1964) General factors affecting climate: 1) Latitude 2) Elevation the decrease in temp is associated with increase in elevation 3) Proximity to large bodies of water (continentally) closer we are to oceans, the smaller extremes between summer and winter temperatures 4) Ocean currents 5) Prevailing winds air masses travel from west to east 6) Orientation of earth’s surface to sun climatic conditions in a given region are the result of the interplay or combination of these six factors relative importance of each factor varies from region to region climate zones (Fig. 2.4) based on long term averages of temperature and precipitation data 1) Pacific Marine influence of Pacific Ocean (moderating effect on temperature) Warm summers; cool winters Seasonal variation in temperature (wetter in winter) Orographic precipitation (see Vignette 2.9) Warm moist wind  rises (higher elevation, cooler condensation) colds and condenses  lee ward (much drier) British Colombia Elisa Bozzelli th Friday, January 17 , 2014 Elisa Bozzelli 2) Cordillera Higher elevation – lower temperature Different climate regimes at different elevations (similar to variation with latitude – see diagram) Higher precipitation on windward side of mountains versus leeward side 3)Arctic High latitude – low temperatures Resolute (Cornwallis Island)  mean annual temperature is -16°C, only 3 months (June –August) with average temperature > 0°C 4) Subarctic See Vignette 2.9 Cold winters (but average temperature >Arctic climate region) Five months (May – September) with average temperature > 0°C High temperature range – summer to winter Largest climate region in Canada 5) Prairies Continental climate – hot summers, cold winters (continentally) Absence of any large body of water to moderate temperatures in extreme seasons, therefore colder winters and hotter summers Region of NorthAmerica over which polar and tropical air masses converge Elisa Bozzelli Precipitation decreases from east to west (example: Palliser’s Triangle – very arid) 6) Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Humid continental climate zone – hot, humid summers and cold winters Continentally Restricted to southernmost parts of Ontario and Quebec Moderating effect of Great Lakes Summers not as hot, winters not as cold 8 months with average temperature of > 0°C 7)Atlantic Maritime climate zone – warm summers, cool winters, moist all year Difference between warm and hot/cool and cold * Influence of ocean currents: Gulf Stream (warm water from Caribbean), and Labrador Current (cold water from Arctic) converge off coast of Newfoundland producing fog Maps Figure 2.5 Seasonal Temperatures (January) Figure 2.6 Seasonal Temperatures (July) Figure 2.7 Annual Precipitation Figure 2.4 Climate Zones Elisa Bozzelli Climate Change See Bone pages 58-65 Global warming – increase in global temperatures due to the greenhouse effect (See Vignette 2.10) Greenhouse effect – increase in carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases) in earth’s atmosphere which prevents heat/energy from escaping back into space, thereby causing temperatures to increase Global warming – anthropomorphic (human) causes versus natural causes of climate change Human induced changes become more prominent as a result of Industrial Revolution (last 250 years) “Anthropocene” – proposed name for current period on geologic time chart The science of climate change The politics of climate change “Two facts about human impacts on climate are clear: humans are adding additional amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and … an increase in global temperature is therefore inevitable” (Norton, 2009, 113). Possible impacts of global warming on Canada Permafrost limit moves northward Tree line moves north Coastal flooding Ice-free Northwest Passage Infrastructure damage resulting from melting permafrost Ecological change – species redistribution Gaia: planet Earth regulates itself chemically and atmospherically to “keep itself fit” (example: the Earth as a super- organism) Not a scientifically proven fact, but widely accepted as a valid viewpoint Gaia = Greek goddess of the earth James Lovelock, 1970s Elisa Bozzelli “The Revenge of Gaia” (2006) Lovelock now believes that the self-regulating mechanism of Gaia will ensure that global warming cannot be controlled by human actions Harmful consequences of human actions will be non-linear (example: they will accelerate uncontrollably) Lovelock’s conclusion – we are already past the point of return for climate change, the end result of which will be “total societal collapse” “Before this century is over, billions of us will die, and the few (remaining) breeding pairs of people that survive will be in theArctic where the climate remains tolerable” “Global warming represents a major environmental challenge” (Bone, 2011, 68) What can/should we do? Who should we believe? Is Lovelock right? Elisa Bozzelli Tuesday, January 21, 2014 Climate Change - See Vignette 2.11 p.60 (Natural Factors Affecting Global Warming), 2.12 p. 63 (Fluctuations in World Temperatures) - See Contested Terrain 2.2 p. 61 (Beyond the 1997 Kyoto Protocol) Recent survey in US: - 77% believe aliens have visited Earth - 44% believe humans are causing climate change - New York Times 19 January 2014: Science of climate change vs. politics of climate change vs. perception of climate change The Carolinian Forest - Sub-area of Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Lowlands - Canada’s ‘Deep South’; ‘Banana Belt’ - Northeastern edge of broadleaf deciduous hardwood forest ecosystem of eastern NorthAmerica - Named after ecosystem characteristic of Carolinas - North shore of Lake Erie, Niagara Peninsula (line joining Toronto with Grand Bend) - Latitude- Point Pelee 41.9 degrees N - Moderation of temperatures (esp. winter) by Great Lakes; mildest winters in Ontario - Warmest avg. annual temperature in Canada - Longest frost- free season in Canada - .25% of Canada’s total area, but more flora/fauna species than any other ecosystem in Canada Elisa Bozzelli - 2,200 species of herbaceous plants; 400 species of birds - 1/3 of rare, threatened, endangered species in Canada found here - ‘Indicator species’tulip tree, sycamore, opossum, red- bellied woodpecker, eastern hognose snake - Ecosystem with greatest biodiversity is also the area with nearly half of Canada’s population, resulting in a range of planning/ policy issues:  Species at risk  Habitat protection  Urban/rural land use conflict Elisa Bozzelli Thursday, January 23 , 2014 Assignment Guidelines  Choose either topic one (contested terrain) OR topic 2 (thinking like a teacher) Topic 1: Contested Terrain 1) sources: text; at least 4 other sources (two of which much be academic sources) 2) Write a 4-6 page brief to the Prime Minister. Your brief will consist of: i) a concise summary of the facts; ii) a critical assessment of the contested terrain; and iii) a clear statement of your advice to the PM 3) Choose only one of the three topics Concise Summary: what are the essential background facts the form the basis of your critical assessment and your advice? Critical Assessment: What are the different points of view? What are the essential arguments? Strengths and weaknesses Advice to Steve: What, exactly, do you think the government’s position should be? Topic 2: Thinking like a teacher Sources: text; at least three websites concerning the need and for the value of geography Write up will consist of i) rationale for teaching geography of Canada in Ontario high schools; (why bother) ii) critical commentary on one of two lectures and iii) a lecture outline (see instructions for specific details) Rationale for teaching geography: why should it be taught? What is lost if it is not taught? Critical commentary: strengths and weaknesses of either lecture (not both) Choose either “The peopling of theAmericas” or “The search for the Truth in the Social Sciences” How’s it being presented? Was it effective? Critique content and overall lecture/experience Lecture outline: what would you teach? How would you teach it? What would be your goals? etc. (things that stand out from GOOD profs) Elisa Bozzelli General guidelines 1) length: 4-6 pages (1000-1500 words) 2) double spaced: 12 point font; one inch margins; one side only 3) formal style – proper sentences and proper paragraphs 4) subheadings are strongly encouraged 5) introduction – concise statement of purpose: introduce topic; 4-5 sentences 6) Body – follow instructions above; be sure to follow instructions (see assignment sheet) two or three sections 7) conclusion – concise re-statement of topic and your main findings; 4-5 sentences The Finer Points Avoid using person pronouns Formal style – proper sentences; proper paragraphs; subheadings Paragraph length – avoid very short (1-2 sentences) and very long (> 1 page) paragraphs Number the pages Referencing in text citations (author, date, page) What to reference? 1) Direct quotes: “Canada is best understood from a regional perspective.“ (Bone, 2005, 3) 2) Specific facts/figures:According to Bone (2005,24) more than 60 percent of Canadians live in Ontario and Quebec 3) General reference to a book/source:Among the recent books dealing with Canada’s regional geography are Bone (2011), and Warkentin (1999) Elisa Bozzelli only those sources to which you refer in your paper should be included in the bibliography Annotated Bibliography For each entry in your bibliography, cite all relevant bibliographic information (book – author, year, title, publisher, place of publication; article – author, year, article title, journal, vol., no., pages) as well as a 4-6 sentence description of the relevance of the book/article to your paper EX: Rybczynski, W. 1995. City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World Scribner, New York. An examination of city living in the wake of innovations such as the skyscraper, the automobile, and telecommunications. Using examples forma round the world, this book explores how and why cities differ from one another and why these differences matter Due Date/Title Page Information Submit assignment using the drop box on the second floor of GSB th Due Date: 4:00p.p Thursday February 27 2014 Late penalty: 10% per day Your title page should have the following information: Ameaningful/relevant title Your name Your student name The course code The instructors name The date [email protected] (will gladly answer questions) Elisa Bozzelli th Friday, January 24 , 2014 Land of People Regions Identity- The Peopling of theAmericas  Word Document  Option for assignment 1 topic 2* Part II: Themes in Canada’s Geography Social and Demographic Trends Elisa Bozzelli th Tuesday, January 28 , 2014 Part II: Themes in Canada’s Geography Social and Demographic Trends Elisa Bozzelli Canadian Society and Economy 1. To describe social/ economic trends in Canada 2. To examine social welfare issues in Canada 3. To demonstrate links among society, economy, and environment See Bone, Chapter 4 “Canada’s Human Face” Social and Demographic Trends What is Social geography? Geography: study of spatial patterns and processes Social: culture, ethnicity, demography, welfare.. “The geography of human condition” - Some important characteristics/ trends in Canada’s social geography: Population in 2011: 34.3 million Urban Population in 2011: 82% urban (18% rural) Doubling time: 116 years Crude Birth Rate: 11/1000 Crude Death Rate: 8/1000 Life Expectancy: Women- 83.3 years; Men- 78.7 years (2011) Women- 76.9 years; Men 69.7 years (1974) Part II: Themes in Canada’s Geography Social and Demographic Trends Elisa Bozzelli Regional Variation in life expectancy (male and female): BC: 81.2 years ON: 81 years Nunavut: 72 years Yukon: 77 years N.W.T: 78 years Question: Why does life expectancy vary from region to region?  spatial variation, difference across space Immigration: -Annual number of immigrants (average in 1990’s ~ 225,000) - By 2006, nearly 20% of total population were born outside of Canada Provincial destinations of immigrants: Ontario 50% Quebec 20% BC 15% Immigrant Origins (p. 137-139): See Fig. 4.6 (p. 138), Fig. 4.7 (p. 139), Table 4.11 (p. 147), Table 4.7 (p.137), Fig. 4.5 (p. 133) Spatial Distribution of Canada’s Population Ecumene: the settled or inhabited area of a country (See Fig. 4.2 p. 124) Part II: Themes in Canada’s Geography Social and Demographic T
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