Class Notes (807,395)
Canada (492,736)
Sociology (2,049)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Oct. 25th.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Gail Coulas

Sociology 3HH3: Sociology of Health October 25 2012 Lecture 7: Assignment: - Look at a broad topic that interests you, research it until you can get to something more specific and find a q - Then research to find answer – your answer to your q is your thesis – conclusion is your thesis - Essay tells her how you got your answer o Start paper with the conclusion - If you don’t know whether to remove data or include it – put it in the endnotes Social Determinants of Health  Social Construction of Health - Social determ o Suggests that the economic situations in any soc influence pop health  Can make health better or worse, doesn’t always have to be neg  Can create health or not o Results of very spec exposures and their cumulative effects over time  Women in middle age now vs. women in middle age in the 40s  Were slimmer then, why? o Bc housework was way harder then, now it doesn’t take as much physical labour  Cumulative effect  Effects on diff ses groups and the inhabitants of diff geo settings can experience diff degrees of health  Health is not random, diff groups have diff problems/positives o About the quantity and the quality of a variety of resources that a soc makes available to it’s members  Do members have the power to effect change in their area?  i.e. in Toronto they are trying to get rid of bike paths o Are able to get rid of them on some streets, can’t on others bc of people against it  Moves the solution of health away from biomed to soc and it’s social resp  What is the group doing to create or not create health? o Power and agency  Who ahs the power to create health, make change?> o Determine the extent to which a person has the resoruces they need o Relate to the degree of social equity in a soc  Do we all have equal chance of good health and bad health  Or is it pockets of people? o Yes. Why? o Confirms that a sig proporition of our pop and our health is soc manufactured  Leads to soc construction of health and illness Social construction of health and illness - Amount of illness we create or don’t in our soc o Shifts and changes over time and with groups - Research focuses on how people as a group contribute to their pop’s health o Contribute thru socialization you receive  Reaction to social conditions you meet  Values and norms shaped by group and enviro - Our culture examples: o i.e. body shapes and body weight  What is a socially healthy body weight? Hasn’t always been the same.  Classical – Fat was sexy bc fat = health  1960s twiggy = sexy so starving was sexy, and that was ok  1990s kate moss, just as thin as twiggy = poor body image that you have to be that thin  All of a sudden thinness was seen as a bad thing bc of eating disorders  Culturally defined limits as to what we accept, as to what is ok  Currently  Thin role models replaced by more healthy body images like kate winslet o A more current healthy look comes from weight lifting – more go for a perception of control and balance  Healthy lifestyle  More men are being affected by body image issues – more working out, more use of steroids, more extreme diets o Transitions in what is appropriate food  Healthy roast beef dinner with bread  high protein and low carb, no enriched sugar  Size of soda being debated  Ontario wants cancer cigarette warnings on snack foods and vending machines - We follow the patterns o Supports the idea that our health is socially constructed o What you eat shifts with where you are  Diff cults have diff attitudes o Health as a relative state  Determined by cult values, by historical context - Research focuses on both subjective and objective factors that effect helath o Objective – pollution etc. o Subjective – norms etc. o Becomes clear when we compare and analyze the expectations and responses of diff groups of people regarding good health and ill health  Diffs btw class, med people and patients, gender, religion, ethnicity, historical period etc.  Social groups create and define ideas and behs regarding what is good or bad health  Individs buy into that and this shapes your life, beh patterns and responses  Every cult has customs, rituals etc. that relate to what is considered healthy  i.e. epilepsy o Clinically it is a disease with medically agreed upon symptoms o Socially, has received variety of diff responses  Canada – stigmitzing for immigrants  Epileptics classified with witches, prosititues and undesirables under citizenship act  Other cults  Avoided and feared  Defined as strange and abnormal  Other other cults  Seen as close to god, special o Illustrates how social norms shift with time and place  Like stigma surrounding mental health  Who defines the situation? When does it cross from quirkiness into sickness? Who gets to decide this? o Where does stigma come from? Why is it stigmitizing to take meds for mental health and not for physical health?  Who socially constructs that this is an ok thing, but this is not an ok thing? o Autism spectrum  Now we agree that they exist (didn’t used to) including ADHD etc.  Contemporary defs have shifted  Rather than singling out these conditions, we put them on a spectrum and sayt they are variations of a single issue o Often we focus on the pos qualities of that person with the issue  i.e. If we can get them thru school, they are gonna do so great!  Why do we blame the kid and not the enviro? - Social construction of our reactions to health and to illness o Impact of soc on defs health and illness are well documented in research o Usually focus on subcategories or subgroups  Hard though since political correctness came around, cause could look at group and say they have this issue, and it could stigmitize them  Could be necc to know though to help them o Very difficult to look at subcultural group info cause of nervousness around being stigmitized  Don’t have as much subcult data as we used to have  Zola  Study of ethnic groups and symptom reporting o How we are socially taught by our group to react to symptoms  Which do we ignore, which make us seek help, what kind of help etc. o Compared 2 groups  Irish and the Italians in a Boston clinic  Noted that When coming to the clinic and self-reporting their problems:  Irish tended to compare more of ear, eye, nose and throat ailments o Denied existence of pain more than Italians o Very specific complaint o Took much longer than Italians to seek help  Italians tended to compare of ailments affecting whole body – generalized pain o Very general complaint o Complained more o Sought help faster o Concluded that the ethnic subcult had taught people to complain diff  Even when came in with the same disease/issue  Zaborowski  Looked at health care personnel o Interviewed regarding their percpetions among pain reactions in jewish, Italians, irsih and anglo-americans o Found in general:  Personnel suggested that Italians and jewish individuals were more expressive, complained more and were much more emotional regarding their pain levels  The anglo-americans and the irish groups were more stoic, repressed any expression of pain  Conclusion of Z and Z: Social cult factors influence how you seek help, when you seek help, who you seek help from and how you cope  Cults socialize people to the acceptable response to pain/symptoms  Panic and freak out vs. stoicism o Some groups admire self control  i.e. Sierra Lione group – Kuranko  Had a puberty rite where boys were circumcised at adolescence o Boys say “Better to die than to wince, blink or cry out” o So in this group, control over pain expression symbolizes the ability to assume the adult male role  Zborowski on pain o Italians want immediate relief o Jewish individs tended to worry about the implications of the pain o Anglo-americans wanted relief but were not that vocal o Irish denied existence to the pain  Our society – Heroes and heroines don’t show pain o What does that say to us?  Get idea thru movies and books about how we should react to pain  Pain should be avoided  Strong people don’t emote too much  When we do have pain, medicate it immediately  Pain and illness are soc constructed  Diff cults see diff things as relevant  Understanding cult variances will help effective treatment o Health personnel  Usually conditioned by their culture  React to the beh and the perceptions that they have of patients  See that doctors react diff to diff forms of pain expression depending on their own ethnic and class backgrounds  Zola o Non-italian docts tended to question the credibility of their emotional Italian patients  Often interpret their emotionality as a phsy issue, not a pain issue  Lack o Found that gender perceptions affected treatments  Charmez o Gender diffs in the response people give to illness  Men – bc identities invested in ebing autonomous,
More Less

Related notes for SOCIOL 3HH3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.