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Human capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses Social capital: refers to the networks or connections that individuals possess Cultural capital: is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a superior job Low-income cutoff: is Statistic Canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family devotes a larger share of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than an average family would, likely resulting in straitened circumstances Global inequality: refers to differences in the economic ranking of countries Cross-national variations in internal stratification: are differences among countries in their stratification systems The Gini index: is a measure of income inequality. Its value ranges from zero (which means that every household earns exactly the same amount of money) to one (which means that all income is earned by a single household) Social stratification: refers to the way in which society is organized in layers or strata Ascription-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on characteristics a person is born with Achievement-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on a person’s accomplishments Social mobility: refers to movement up or down the stratification system Caste system: is an almost pure ascription-based stratification system in which occupations and marriage partners are assigned on the basis of caste membership Apartheid: was a caste system based on race that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1992. It consigned the large black majority to menial jobs, prevented marriage between blacks and whites, and erected separate public facilities for members of the two races. Asians and people of mixed race enjoyed privileges b/w these two extremes Feudalism: was a legal arrangement in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants to the land and obliged them to give their landlords a set part of the harvest. In exchange, landlords were required to protect peasants from marauders and open their storehouses to feed the peasants if crops failed Class consciousness: refers to being aware of membership in a class Class: in Marx’s sense of the term, is determined by a person’s relationship to the means of production, In Weber’s usage, class is determined by a person’s “market situation” Bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage are owners of the means of production, including factories, tools, and land. They do not do any physical labour. Their income derives from profits Proletariat: in Marx’s usage, is the working class. Members of the proletariat do physical labour but do not own means of production. They are thus in a position to earn wages Petitie bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage, is the class of small-scale capitalists who own means of production but employ only a few workers or none at all, forcing them to do physical work themselves Status groups: differ from one another in terms of the prestige or social honour they enjoy and also in terms of their style of life Parties: in Weber’s usage, are organizations that seek to impose their will on others The Functional theory of stratification: argues that (1) some jobs are more important than others are, (2) people must make sacrifices to train important jobs, and (3) inequality is required to motivate people to undergo these sacrifices Power: is the ability to impose one’s will on others Authority: is legitimate institutionalized power Intragenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs w/n a single generation Intergenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs b/w generations Socioeconomic status (SES): combine income, education, and occupational prestige data in a single index of a person’s position in the socioeconomic hierarchy Chapter 10 Prejudice: is an attitude that judges a person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristics Discrimination: is unfair treatment of people b/c of their group membership Race: is a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, usually w/ profound effects on their lives Scapegoat: is a disadvantaged person or category of people that others blame for their own problems Ethnic group: comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. Ethnic groups differ from one another in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors, and the like Canada’s multiculturalism: policy emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences Melting pot: ideology of the United States values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences Symbolic ethnicity: is a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country, that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour Racism: is the beli
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