Shit toward heredity & evoluionary explanaions of deviance. Pathological and medicalizaion of non-genital, non-reproducive and same sex sexual acivity. Early medical understanding of same-sex sexual behaviours: Becomes pathologized as hereditary predisposiion: hereditary weaknesses of inds. But is not the ind"s fault** important, tries to take it out of the criminal pracices. Now product of physiological and biological mechanisms- some believe it is just bio reasons, or environ or a combinaion of both. For some theorists-is impervious to environmental inluences. Renewed criminalizaion of same-sex sexual conduct- eu and us. Prosecuions of same-sex conduct - cause problems of social order. Between 1880 - 1890 # convicions more than triples in us. However, sodomy removed as capital ofence in england in 1861- jails illed with men charged with sodomy. While medicalizaion & criminalizaion of same-sex sexual conduct appears contradictory, these 2 historical processes relect: Rise to dominance of med prof as insituion of social control.