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Lecture 2

SOCIOL 2S06 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Andre Gunder Frank, World-Systems Theory, Columbia University

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David Young

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Theories of Globalization 04/06/2015
Introduction and Historical Overview
A) What is globalization?
-the process of integrating nations and people’s into larger economic,
political, and social processes
B)The development of globalization theories
-term globalization ahs only been around for about 30 years
-first emerged in the 1980s
-the history goes well beyond the 30 years though
-theorists have been talking about things that we now call globalization
1. Early Theoretical Ideas
1860s (Karl Marx, capitalists expansion)
-when karl wrote about capitalism, he talked about the pressures that
exists on capitalists to try to expand their markets
1950s (Talcott Parsons, modernization theory)
-modernization theory suggested that all societies are going to
inevitably follow the same path of economic, social and cultural
development achieved by the united states- up to speed and be more lie
united states
2. Later theoretical ideas
1960s- Andre Gunder Frank developed dependency theory
-dependency theory was a critique of modernization theory
-Gunder Frank argue that countries wont be able to pull themselves up
to the level of the states, economically, culturally or socially- they will remain
in under development.
-his analysis focused on Latin American countries- argued that they
are locked in a relationship with the united states
-Latin American countries will be exploited and kept down from the
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-existence of inequality between countries and how some countries
exploit other countries interests him
1970s- Immanuel Wallerstein, developed world systems theory
-Wallerstein adopted a broader focus – just as interested in inequality
between countries
1980s- the first appearance of the concept of globalization
-word hadn’t been in existence before that decade
-word first appeared in an article that was addressing the expansion of
global markets
-the term stuck and people started talking about the notion of
1990s- term became the bases for a lot of academic work – scholars
started to analyze different kinds of globalization
-a lot of analyze in economic globalization, and political globalization
Economic Globalization
A) What is Economic Globalization?
-involves world wide, interconnected, material production and financial
B) Analyzing Economic Globalization
-2 basic approaches
1. View of economists?
-focus on the economic mechanisms of expanding global trade
-they pay little attention to the social implications of these economic
mechanisms of expanding global trade
2. View of sociologists?
-focus on the historical and the structural aspects of globalizing
economic processes and the social implications including global inequality
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-issue is around the address of global inequality
-begin with the work of Wallerstein
-Wallenstein’s work is the basis for a lot of the analysis of economic
C)A Biographical Sketch of Immanuel Wallerstein
1. Early Life
-born in new york in 1930
-as he was growing up he was exposed to a lot of discussion about
politics and world issues in his families home
-“My family was very politically conscious and world affairs were
always being discussed in our home. The fight against Nazism and fascism
was our primary concern, and long before pearly harbor . We were also very
conscious of the great split in the world left, that between the second and
third internationals”- clear his political leanings stem from his biography
2. University Education
-completed all of his degrees in Columbia new york
-studied sociology for all 3 of his degrees
-did a B.A in sociology graduating in 1951
-M.A in sociology in 1954
-completed PhD in sociology in 1959
-for his MIA- masters thesis he studied McCarthyism (witch hunt for
anyone who was part of ledge ties to communism – referred to as un
-went off in completely diff direction when he started his PhD
-PhD dissertation- emergence of two west African Nations: Ghana and
the Ivory Coasts
3. University Career
a)Influences on Academic Thought
-how bio intersects with his theoretical ideas
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