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SOCSCI 2Q03 Lecture Notes - European Canadian, Menopause, Neolithic

Social Sciences
Course Code
Geraldine Voros

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Social Science 2Q03 Origins of the Family
There seems to be an ever-present male dominance that existed given
research. Men had superior strength and they took advantage of that.
Women had the ability to pro-create, more and more pregnancies. Men did
not know that sex was able to produce a child. Women were viewed as onus
because they had the sole ability to create a society.
Women assumed responsibility for the child (sole parent). This results in a
very powerful status for them. Men in fact believed that they could be the
dominant individuals based on their strength. Women did not rebel against
this authority.
10-15 thousand years ago 65 researchers concluded that men and women
were connected based on the child. We know this based on cave walls
drawings depicting the life cycle of antelopes
Hunting and gathering Societies
There are no institutionalized families just clans that hunted and gathered
From early researchers, hunters had the more important role. Women
constantly gathered thus playing an important role. Women gathered about
80% percent of all food gathered. Women may seem under-valued because
hunters are superior
Patri-loco: father determines the place of residence will be. Women and
children were seen as the future. Men could be expendable.
!Kung clan: Africa, they are not parti loco but they have a shared authority
between elder males and females. They do not migrate but they live close to a
vast supply of water. All food is shared equally so that everyone can sustain
himself or herself. The heroes in the culture are either men or women that
can cure or heal. Warriors are seen as deviant because this society is very
peaceful, they shun violence.
Mbuti tribe: when child is 2 years old, the mother brings that child were the
father sits with a small plate of food. The child sucks on the male breast but
receives no milk. The father gives the child food and its his first solid meal.
The child then must call that male father.

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New Stone Age
Very pivotal. Took place 10-12 thousand years ago. Took rise in three areas:
Tigris-Euphrates (Turkey through Iraq). Cradle of civilization (alphabet and
written word. Second area: Nile Third: Indus River valley (Tibet through
west Pakistan)
They domesticated animals, which would be used to eat food easily, and no
need to migrate. These three areas are very fertile which allowed these
societies to sustain themselves.
Concept of ownership of land developed. Men laid the claim to the land.
Females would bear the children and cook, clean etc.
When men would die, they would leave their inheritance to their male son.
This developed in an escalation of concept of family. Men would claim
legitimacy of family because they wanted their child to carry on. In order to
legitimize a child the men must conceive with virgin women would declare
Use of folkways (fads) based on staying in one place. It however became a
mores (unwritten law). Civilized based on land area.
Start to see a heterosexual relationship thus becoming institutionalized.
Patriarchy beginning.
Spread of Christianity
Patriarchy is strengthened
3 Religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Christianity for example makes women lesser than men
o Seen as dangerous, manipulative
o Martin Luther believed in the inferiority of women. Affirmed in the
o 200 derogatory terms for women during this time
3 exceptions of stereotypes of women:
o Prioresses and abbesses were communities of women who lived
together who were spiritually defined for the good, ie. Consoling, well
educated. Also, learned medicine and health. They could not be both a
mother or wife and Prioresses and abbesses. The church does not
support them. As they service the communities they were earning
more than the church.
o Noble women of Estates. Ran these estates while husbands where at
o Work by their husbands in small fields and shops. Dual career family.

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Industrial Revolution
1700-1800. Canada was late 1800s.
Potential Emancipation.
Modernist theorists: As society develops, you were ascribing status ie. Upper,
poor. With Industrial Revolution you could sell labor and earn a wage. This
could benefit both men and women
As men and women the cultural lag was that men were worth more than
women. They were payed less. Men needed a family wage and the patriarchy
was that women did not
Women were doing canning and they brought that into the workplace
They did earn small amounts of money but less recognized to men
o Cultural lag (men were always the bosses)
Rising Middle Class
Women’s intention is to marry well (comes from this era)
o Also looking for mate habits is from this period
Women who are middle class is criticized for exploiting there husbands labor
(Real Housewives of LA)
o However opposite is true (slept her way to the top) if she is successful
Everyone had a fair chance for success, yet social justice was not apparent
Victorian Era
Women did spend a lot of time being creative ie. Needle spinning, crafts. Used
to preoccupy things based on the fact they had maids
Women were in charge of hiring housemaids, teachers
This added to the idea of female inferiority, (a women’s place is in the home)
In order for women to attract a rich mate, she would show she is a cut above
ie. Liteate
o If women were painters or writers, it would be sold as a male. No one
wanted to buy a female work
Suppress women and relegate them as inferior
Male entitlement was huge
Modern Times
Women have now realized that they are capable of doing wellon there own.
They go to school
They feel that they do not need to marry
More than ever women have a different mindset to men and family
o Less feeling towards children
They feel this struggle is still apparent ie. Glass ceiling
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