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Lecture 6

1M03 week 6.docx

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Theatre & Film Studies
Peter Cockett

1M03 week 6(1): The Rise of Macedon 02/10/2014 • Resource-rich but weakly centralizedArgead kingdom of Macedonia • Kings had weak control over kingdom • 359: Philip II becomes king First king to mobelize resources in order to strengthen army and society • Strong politician/general leader • Philip unifies Macedonia under strong royal rule and reorganizes army Took lead in inivating new way of war Created professional, full-time, royal army – not citizen army • Systematic military reform: • Baggage train o Carried own equipment o Reducing size of army, move at quicker speed Macedonian phalanx (sarissas) Long, pole-like weapons Creating lethal row/wall of large weapon Cavalry: Highly trained horsemen Used systematicly for first time, charging through gaps in wall and destroying enemy formation Light-armed scouts & skirmishers Torsion catapult Taking down city walls, as well as armies • 357-338: Macedonian expansion: Chalcidices, Thessaly, then all Greece, as well as Illyria & Thrace • 338: Battle of Chaeronea: Macedonians vs. Greeks (Theban Sacred Band) • Theban sacred band is monument in Chaeronia • After war, Chaeronia made Philip master of greeks • Philip’s domination of Greece • All of Greece joined, other than Sparta • Philip ignored Greece instead of starting a war • League of Corinth • War with Persia • Called war on Persia to get revenge for Persian wars • Wanting to demonstrate his power, unite Greece, and expand his empire • Panhellenism & Macedonian expansionism • 336: Philip assassinated • appeared as though his achievements would fall apart • Alexander III the Great’s troubled succession: • Eliminated rivals • Defeat thracians & illyrians o Rose up in rebellion after assassination Destruction of thebes To set example to other greeks Greeks got message and reaffimed loyalty to league of Corinth Proved to be every but his fathers son • 334: declares war … • Daruis III (336-330): the political necessity of shoring up his authority and imperial unity by proving military might • Took up kingship in Persia during same time • Had great confidence in his power to crush in war • At same time were anxieties/insecurities of power in war • Faced intense political pressure to live up to traditions of Persian kingship • This motivated him to meet alexander in the field Eventually works out in alexanders favour Large army does not mean successful army Greek army was still strong due to Philip • Despite Memnon of Rhodes’proposal of a scorched earth policy, Daruis givesAlexander the battle he needs • Memnon recommended that they lack the Greeks of supply/resources (burn the land) to force them out • During this time, Persians could make use of their army; their weakpoint • Ended up with direct confrontation with alexander in the field • On his way to the battle, alexander stopped in Troy to pay recollection toAcheles o Relating himself to the greeks; not just a Macedon leader o Reflecting himself onto such a powerful man/idol • Anew Achilles and new Trojan war: the Macedonian king as hereditary heir of panhellenic destiny • Yet Greek opposition
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