BIOL 1202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Isolated System, Thermodynamics, Metabolic Waste

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29 Oct 2017
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Energy and Enzymes
Thermodynamics and Enzymes
Organisms are open systems
They absorb energy- light or chemical energy in organic molecules- and release heat
and metabolic waste products
Order can increase locally but there is a trend toward randomization of the universe
For closed system only energy is exchanges
All biological organisms are open system
Isolated system means nothing is exchanged
Thermodynamics
“The language of energy”
Interested in the CHANGE as the system moves from state to state
Interested in difference of energy between two states (initial and final state)
o DIFFERENCE between two states
o eg: products and reactants
Path independent
o How you go from beginning to end state is irrelevant
o Interested only in difference of energy between two states
Thermodynamics- Science of energy transformations
Energy: Capacity to do work.
Entropy: DIsorder
Free energy: Energy available to perform work
Is directly related to the equilibrium of a reaction
Doesn’t tell how fast the system comes to equilibrium
Kinetics tells us about rates
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be transferred and transformed, but
it cannot be created or destroyed
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Free Energy
CHANGE in free energy resulting from a PROCESS
Ex: going from reactants to products.
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It is important that cells maintain disequilibrium because equilibrium could be dangerous for
the cells because they are always going through reactions.
Organisms live at the expense of free energy
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Every energy transformation makes the universe more disordered.
o Entropy is a measure of that disorder (“S” a measure of randomness)
o Unstoppable trend towards randomization of the universe
o Much of the increased entropy of the universe takes the form of heat.
Entropy is a tendency of energy to become dispersed or spread out.
EX: Entropy in Solvation
When molecules go into solution, their entropy increases because they’re freer to
move around.
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