BIOL 1202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Octet Rule, Type B Cipher Machine, Electronegativity

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28 Aug 2016
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BIOL 1202
Purple Pages 2
PURPLE PAGES 2 PROGRAMME
ELEMENT
A pure substance composed of only one type of atom.
Living organisms are composed mainly of CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN
COMPOUND
Is composed of two or more elements
ATOMS
1.67 x 10^-27 kg ( 1 Dalton)
ELECTRONS AND ATOMIC BEHAVIOUR
ELECTRONS PAIR (up and down spins attract)
ORBITAL
Refers to the volume around a nucleus where electrons are most likely found
Each orbital holds up to two electrons
Chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the number arrangements of its orbitals
Electrons are attracted to positively charged nucleus
Take energy to hold electrons in place
Potential energy
ATOMIC MASS
Refers to the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons
Measured in Dalton's
MASS - the amount of a substance
ISOTOPES
Atoms of an element that possesses a different number of neutrons
RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
Spontaneously decay into elements of lower atomic number
Emit energy and/or subatomic particles
Used to follow the fates of various chemicals
ELECTRONEGATIVITY (the relative pull/ attraction)
Electrons are drawn into the nucleus
MORE PROTONS in the nucleus, GREATER THE POSITIVE FIELD that draws in electrons
Determines the type of bonds (covalent, non-polar covalent, ionic, etc.)
The farther out the electrons are the weaker they feel towards the positive field
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