BIOL 1202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Glycosidic Bond, Covalent Bond, Dehydration Reaction

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29 Aug 2016
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BIOL 1202
Lecture 6
Purple Pages 3: Organic Chemistry
IMPORTANCE OF CARBON
1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds
Organic compounds can be synthesized by non-living reactions
2. Most versatile building blocks of molecules
Little tendency to form ionic bonds
Carbon usually completes its valence shell by sharing electrons with
other atoms in four covalent bonds
Tetra valence by carbon makes large, complex molecules possible.
3. Variation in carbon contributes the diversity of organic molecules
Ethane, butane, propane, etc.
Dependent on the shape, linear or ring structure
4. ALLOWS DIVERITY depending on
Length of carbon skeleton
Branch points along skeleton
Tetravalent - can build in 3D
Double bonds
Ability to form rings
Can incorporate functional groups (modifies properties)
CHONPS:
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous,
sulfur
HYDROCARBON
Covalent bonds store considerable energy
Not very soluble
Long hydrocarbon chains store energy
Organic molecules that consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Major component of petroleum
Which is a fossil fuel
DEHYDRATION AND HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS
many of the reactions that involve functional groups, the components of a water molecule, and -H
and -OH, are removed from or added to the groups as they interact.
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DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS / CONDENSATION
components of a water molecule are removed during a reaction, usually as part
of the assembly of a larger molecule from smaller subunits
REMOVING OH and H
EX. When sugar molecules become starch
HYDROLYSIS
components of a water molecule are added to functional groups as molecules
are broken into smaller subunits.
Breaks a covalent bond by ADDING H and OH
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
occur in positions in which their covalent bonds are more readily broken
or rearranged than the bonds in other parts of the molecules.
The unconnected covalent bonds written to the left of each structure link
these functional groups to other atoms in biological molecules, usually carbon
atoms. The symbol R is used to represent a chain of carbon atoms.
Particular groups of atoms attached to carbon backbones
Have definite chemical properties
Usually contain polar groups (due to electronegative atoms)
Some may be acidic and some are basic
HYDROXYL GROUP (-OH)
They are POLAR
Enables an alcohol to form linkages to other organic molecules through
DEHYDRATION
CARBONYL GROUP (C=O)
are the reactive parts of aldehydes and ketones
ALDEHYDES & KETONES
molecules that act as major building blocks of carbohydrates and also
take part in the reactions supplying energy for cellular activities.
ALDEHYDE
the carbonyl group is linked—along with a hydrogen atom—to a carbon
atom at the end of a carbon chain, along with a hydrogen atom
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EX. Acetaldehyde
KETONE
carbonyl group is linked to a carbon atom inside of a carbon chain,
EX. Acetone (solvent)
CARBOXYL GROUP (-COOH)
Combination of a hydroxyl and a carbonyl group.
carboxyl group is the characteristic functional group of organic acids (also called carboxylic
acids).
gives organic molecules acidic properties because its group readily releases the hydrogen as a
proton in solution.
AMINO ACIDS (-NH2)
in a molecule it is linked to an R group on the other side, as in the amino acid alanine and all
other amino acids.
PHOSPHATE GROUP (-OPO32-)
Among the large biological molecules linked by phosphate groups is the nucleic acid DNA
added to or removed from biological molecules as part of reactions that conserve or release
energy.
control biological activity
activity of many proteins is turned on or off by the addition or removal of phosphate groups.
SULFHYDRYL GROUP (-SH)
Only appears in a few amino acids
sulfur atom is linked on one side to a hydrogen atom; in a molecule, the other side is linked to
an R group.
easily converted into a covalent linkage in which it loses its hydrogen atom as it binds.
two sulfhydryl groups interact to form a disulfide linkage (-S-S-).
disulfide bond contributes to tertiary structure.
CARBOHYDRATES
most abundant biological molecules.
Together with fats, they act as the major fuel substances providing chemical energy for
cellular activities.
Chains of carbohydrate subunits also form structural molecules such as
CELLULOSE
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