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PSYC 2265 (23)
Dave Cann (23)
Lecture 5

PSYC 2265 Lecture 5: PSYC 2265 – Lecture 5 – Perception (Part 2)

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PSYC 2265
Dave Cann

PSYC 2265 – Lecture 5 – Perception (Part 2) Bottom-up Processing: Behavioural • Recognition-by-components theory (RBC) o We perceive objects by perceiving elementary features o Geons: three-dimensional volumes o Objects are recognized when enough information is available to identify the object's geons o Object recognition is a matter of separating, analyzing, and recombining features ➢ This occurs for all objects whether familiar or unfamiliar o Feature characteristics ➢ There are 36 geons (visual primitives) ▪ These are simple shapes that can be combined to form complex shapes ▪ View invariant: looks the same no matter the orientation o The process of perceiving: ➢ Information about the edges of an object are extracted first ➢ Nonaccidental features are encoded ▪ This means actual features of the object rather than some accident of the observer's perspective ➢ Parse object at boundaries ➢ Components are determined and matched with object representations in memory ➢ A match = the object is identified o Objects are less identifiable when it is difficult to recover their components ➢ Biederman (1985) ▪ Identification of degraded objects ➢ Biederman & Cooper (1991) ▪ Repetition priming evidence Helmholtz's Theory of Unconscious Inference (1860) • Related to top-down theory • Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment o We use our knowledge to inform our perceptions • We infer much of what we know about the world • Likelihood principle: we perceive the world in the way that is "most likely" based on our past experiences Perceptual Organization • "Old" view – structuralism o Perception involves adding up sensations • "New" view – Gestalt psychologists o The mind groups patterns according to laws
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