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PSYC 2265 (23)
Dave Cann (23)
Lecture 22

PSYC 2265 Lecture 22: PSYC 2265 – Lecture 22 Notes – Problem Solving: Expertise and Insight

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PSYC 2265
Dave Cann

PSYC 2265 – Lecture 22 Notes – Problem Solving: Expertise and Insight Expertise • Not a general ability, but rather expertise in a specific area • Experts have extensive knowledge that is used to organize, represent, and interpret information o Affects their ability to remember, reason, and solve problems • Chase & Simon (1973) & DeGroot (1965) o Participants were chess masters and beginning chess players o Studied a chess board that had the pieces randomly displayed or a chess board with pieces in the middle of a game o Beginners and experts had to recall as many pieces as they could o Results: ➢ Master chess players and beginner players recalled a similar number of pieces from the random board ➢ Master chess players remember significantly more chess pieces from the game board in play than did the beginner chess players • Experts differ from novices o They have better schemas o Well-organized knowledge in specific domain o Take less time to set up a problem o Select more appropriate strategies o Are faster at solving problems o Are more accurate Insight and Problem Solving • Insight is the apparent sudden solution to a problem some time after the problem has been presented • Metcalfe & Weibe (1987) o Participants were given either insight (word problem based on logic) or algebra problems to solve o Results: ➢ Participants indicated how close they were to the solution every 15 second
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