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Lecture 3

PSYC 3406 Lecture 3: PSYC 3406 – Lecture 3 Notes – Psychoanalytic Therapy

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Mount Royal University
PSYC 3406
John Streukens

PSYC 3406 – Lecture 3 Notes – Psychoanalytic Therapy The Structure of Personality • The Id – the demanding child; our drives and instincts • The Ego – the traffic cop; mediator between the id and superego • The Superego – the judge; moralistic Conscious and Unconscious • Conscious: what is on the surface; the logic and reasoning based in reality • Unconscious: what lies deep, below the surface; our drives and instincts The Unconscious • Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious o Dreams o Slips of the tongue o Posthypnotic suggestions o Material derived from free-association and projective techniques o Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms o Consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind Anxiety • Feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories, and desires o Develops out of conflict among the id, ego, and superego to control psychic energy • Three types of anxiety: o Reality anxiety: fear of the external world o Neurotic anxiety: fear of one’s instincts getting out of control; related to the id o Moral anxiety: fears of one’s own conscience; can be an overdeveloped superego Ego-Defence Mechanisms • Are normal behaviours which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality • Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed • Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality • There are many different ego-defence mechanisms o Repression: thoughts/feelings excluded from reality or consciousness o Denial: ignore threatening aspects of reality o Reaction Formation: express the opposite impulse o Projection: attribute to others one’s own unacceptable desires o Displacement: putting onto another person or object when the original person or objects is not available o Rationalization: creating “good” reasons to explain a bruised ego o Sublimation: divert energy to other channels o Regression: revert to an earlier phase of development with fewer demands o Introjection: adopting the values of others o Identification: identify with successful areas in hope that you will be perceived as worthwhile o Compensation: develop positive traits to make up for limitations The Development of Personality • First year o The oral stage o Trust vs. mistrust • Ages 1-3 o The anal stage o Autonomy vs. dependence • Ages 3-6 o The phallic stage o Initiative vs. stagnation o The Oedipus complex (mother as the love object) and Electra complex (father as the love object) • Ages 6-12 o The latency stage o Industry vs. inadequacy • Ages 12-60 o The genital stage o Identity vs. role confusion Erikson’s Psychosocial Perspective • Psychosocial stages: Erikson’s basic psychological and social tasks to be mastered from infancy through old age • Erikson’s theory of development holds that psychosexual and psychosocial growth take place together • During each psychosocial stage, we face a specific crisis that must be resolved in order to move forward The Therapeutic Process • The goal is to make the unconscious conscious and strengthen the ego so behaviour is based on reality • The blank-screen approach, the therapist remaining neutral, fosters transference • Achieving insight into problems and increasing awareness of ways to change helps clients gain control over their lives • Pushing the client too rapidly or offering ill-timed interpretations will render the process ineffective Psychoanalytic Phenomena • Transference occurs when the client reacts to the therapist as he or she did to an earlier significant other • Countertransference is the reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity • Resistance is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the prod
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