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BIOL 1501 (1)

jan 8 cell biology notes (BIOL1051)

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BIOL 1501

1501-2w.ppt January 9,2:55 PM Next week’s lab material has been posted. What sort of microscopy is that? It’s florescence microscopy again. Like the mice. You used antibodies to specific cellular proteins to define what they are. Nucleus is always blue or purple. Cyber skeletal stuff is shown in green (sometimes yellow or red). Red dots are scattered all throughout. The red dodts can be pulled inwards or moved outwards due to voluntary control. In fish and amphibians. Lower levels of the skin. Red dots are mellinin being picked up, it’s a pigment. Changing color. Melanophore, a type of cell that allows fish and some reptiles to change their color quite rapidly. Base of our skin layer gives us different pigments, freckles age spots etc. melanin pigments can be moved or withdrawn to facilitate color change. These different tools allow us to see on cellular level. jan 8 Page 1 Page 2 January 9, 2:55 PM Muscle cell for example. They are largely filled with protein. Specialized type of job. They push their nuclei out to the periphery. Large packages of muscle with endoplasmic reticulum jan 8 Page 2 Page 3 January 9, 22:55 PM Nerve cell: dendrites receive info. Specialization: packages of insulating material wrapped around them like electrical cables. Same basic architecture. jan 8 Page 3 Page 4 January 9,2:55 PM All made of the same sort of stuff. Typical cells are mostly water, 30 % chemicals. Half of the chemicals are going to be protein. Polysaccharides sugary stuff. Ions are metabolic stuff. Small: fatty acids, etc. all carbon compounds. Macromolecules: big molecules. jan 8 Page 4 Page 5 January 9,2:55 PM Water is the most common compound in cells Cellular chemistry based on the carbon atom. Biomolecules are mostly comprised of chemical units called functional groups (bits and pieces of them they give the function and structure of the molecule. Examples include lipids, sugars, amino acids, and nucleic acids are th e most common. jan 8 Page 5 Page 6 January 9, 2:55 PM Covalent bonding: two atoms share electrons. Weak chemical bonds hold protein together, allow them to interact with DNA. How does water interact with these molecules? jan 8 Page 6 Page 7 January 9, 2:55 PM Water molecules are polar. Positive and negative end. Oxygen is greedy for e-. H and O are sharing e- but O gets more so it is slightly negative. H is slightly positive. Due to polarity they can interact with each other thus a hydrogen bond is possible. jan 8 Page 7 Page 8 January 9, 22:55 PM Water can also interact with other molecules such as ammonia. jan 8 Page 8 Page 9 January 9, 202:55 PM Oxygen and nitrogen are common. jan 8 Page 9 Page 10 January 9,2:55 PM Properties of water are all down to the hydrogen bonding. Amount of hydrogen bonds you get depends on energy state and temperature. Water molecules in ice they are sitting there, raise temp they start to move around and break, when it becomes steam they all break. jan 8 Page 10 Page 11 January 9,2:55 PM Properties of water are important in cellular processes. Be famililar with hydrophilic things: water loving things like ions, calcium ions, magnesium ions… they have a charge and will react nicely with H. Other polar molecules as well. Things that are not happy in water are called hydrophobic. Non polar, non charged molecules. Lipids, fats and oils tend to be hydrophobic. They organize themselves to minimize contact with water. jan 8 Page 11 Page 12 January 9, 2014 2:55 PM jan 8 Page 12 Page 13 January 9, 2:55 PM
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